Wednesday, April 21, 2010

bakery - methods of breadmaking, steps in breadmaking, puff pastry.


There are 5 methods of bread-making--------

1. Straight dough method.
2. No-time dough method
3. Delayed salt method.
4. Sponge and dough method.
5. Ferment and dough method.

Straight dough method--------

In this method all the ingredients are mixed together, and the dough is fermented for a predetermined time.
The fermentation time depends on the strength of the flour, strong flours require longer fermentation time to mature adequately.
Flours which require 2 -3 hours for maturing should be used for making bread by straight method.Flours that take very long for maturing should notbe used for straight dough methods because during prolonged fermentationit is diffcult to control the temperatureof the dough and rise in temperature causes acid taste and flavour in bread.

No-time dough method---------

In this method dough is not fermented in the ususal manner. It is allowed to ferment for a short period so the twin function of fermentation ie. production of gas and conditioning of gluten are achieved to some extent by increasing the amount of yeast .
and by making the dough a little slack and warm.
It is possible to get a good product using this method, but the product has poor keeping quality and lacks aroma.Due to short fermentation time, the gluten and starch are not conditioned to hold moisture and there is no flavour because flavour producing bi- products of fermentation are absent.As there is increased quantityof yeast present, the bread may have a strong yeast flavour.

Delayed -salt method--------------

This is a slight variation of the straight method, where all the ingredients are mixed except salt and fat.As salt has a controlling action on the yeast function, the speed of fermentation of a saltless dough will be faster and a reduction in the fermentation time is affected.The salt is added at the knock-back stage.The method of addingd salt depends on the convenience of indiviual bakers.
It may be sifted on the dry dough or it is creamed with fat and incorporated into the dough.

er way is chosen ,only 3/4 mixing is done [of the actual mixing time] and 1/4th is done after salt is added.
This method is suitable for strong flours if straight dough method is used.

Sponge and dough method------------

This method is normally used for strong flours.Sponge doughs are prepared in 2 stages. This procedure give yeast action a head start.
The 1st stage is called a sponge, a yeast starter or a yeast ferment.All mean thesame thing.
In this method, a part of flour, proportionate amount of water,all the yeast and yeast food are mixed together.Mixing operation are carriedout to incirporate all the ingredients evenly. The sponge is fermented fora pre determined time,which on the quality of flour,and the amount of flour in the sponge.
The sponge is then physically tested, by either taking a piece of sponge and try to break it with both hands,.if the piece breaks with a clean fracture then the sponge is ready for mixing If the sponge stretches and breaks unevenly, then some more fermentation time is needed.
Tear the sponge apart with both hands and examine the web structure, if the web structure is very fine then the sponge is ready.
An adequately fermented doughfeels dry to touch without any stickiness present.
When the sponge is ready,it should be broken down properly with the formula water, and mixed with the remaining flour, sugar , salt and fat.After the dough is mixed ,it is rested for 30-40 minutes.Pre-conditioning of the gluten [during the sponge stage ] hastens the conditioing process.
For the sake of identification and convenience, a sponge is indicated as 60/40 or 70/30, where the first number indicates the percentage of flour used in the sponge.

Ferment and Dough Method----------------

This a variation of the sponge and dough method. Rich doughs which contain milk, eggs, substantial amounts of fat and sugar, have a retarding effect on yeast activity. If all the formula yeast,part of the flour. yeast food and sufficient water is mixed together, the yeast get initially an environment which is conducive to vogorous activityand it is in a fit condition to take on the extra load of fermentation in the presence of milk, egg etc.
When the ferment is ready, it is mixed into the dough, along with the remaining ingredients, along with the remaining ingredients and allowed to ferment [second stage]. This method is used in making enriched breads, buns, danish pastry etc.




Ingredients: -

Refined Flour –
A good patent flour or one of medium gluten strength 13% flour is a structure builder and because of its gluten – forming ability, can dictate the lift.
Too soft a flour will result in a softer dough. The dough will be easier to handle but final volume and flake will be sacrificed.
It the flour is too strong then the dough will be tough to handle and the final product may suffer from shrinkage.

Water: -
It is a rule of thumb that the consistency of the dough should match the consistency of the roll in fat. If the dough is too soft then the layers may be ruptured by the hard fat. If the dough is firm, it will be difficult to roll out. The product may shrink and fat may leak out.
Water also serves as temperature control i.e. it should be cold to maintain firmness of fat.

Salt: -
Salt enhances flavor and also has a toughening effect on the gluten structure.

Acid: -
The addition of an acid improves sheeting ability by lowering the pH and mellowing the gluten. It has no effect on the leavening action.

Fats: -
Two types of fats are used in the production of puff pastry. They each perform a different role.
Fat is added to the dough to modify the dough itself and fat is used as a layering medium to assist in the raising of the puff pastry during baking.

Dough Fat: -
Soft fat may be used in the dough to give better eating quality to the finished product and also aids in the dough’s sheeting ability.
Also it should be noted that as the % of fat increases, volume decreases.
Maximum volume is obtained when 2.5 to 4% fat is used in the dough stage. It should have a melting point of around 33oC - 50oC.

Puff Pastry Shortening: -
This shortening is firm and waxy in nature and is exclusively used to make puffs. Because of its nature, it can be rolled out in smooth continuous sheets between the dough layers.
A melting point between 43oC – 50oC will produce excellent results, but should be high enough to with stand frictional heat to which it is subjected during sheeting and folding operation.

Puff Pastry: -
There are 2 types of puff pastry – Full and Three Quarter. There are three well-known methods of manufacture – English, French and Scotch.
The differences in these types are in the fat contents and in the number of rolls and folds given. Full puff pastry contains flour and fat in equal ratio. While ¾ pastry contains ¾ of fat to each kilo of flour.
The flour that is used in making of puff pastry should be strong, with good quality gluten.
A weak acid such as lemon juice is added. This provides greater extensibility to the gluten
Butter is the best for application as it gives a good flavor. Margarine also can be used but the melting point of margarine has to be lower than the temperature of the human body, otherwise there is a possibility of a thin film of fat remaining on the roof of the mouth after the pastry has been eaten.
The whole purpose of rolling and folding is to build up a structure of alternating layers of dough and fat. This process is known as lamination.

The English method (Three Fold): - (Flaky)
Sieve the flour; rub in 20 gms of butter or margarine. Make a bay or well, add salt and acid and make a dough and allow it to rest. Cream the margarine into a homogenous mass. The dough then rolled into a rectangle about 18” x 6”, the margarine is divided into approx. 3 parts. The first part is evenly distributed to cover 2/3rd of the rolled out dough. The flap of the dough containing no margarine is folded over to cover half of the treated area and then folded over to again cover the last portion. The pastry is given a half turn so that the open ends are parallel to the rolling pin. This process is repeated twice so as to finish all the margarine. Lastly one blindfold is given. The pastry is covered with a damp cloth and allowed to recover from the manipulation for about 30 minutes after each rolling. (7 – 9 layers)

French method: - (Continental Book Fold)
The dough is the same fashion as for the English method. The initial rolling out of the dough is different for it is rolled out to the shape of an open envelope with the four angles slightly thinner than the center.
The chilled margarine/butter is placed in the center of the rolled out square and the envelope is closed by bringing the four angles to the center. After proper relaxation of the dough, it is turned upside down and sheeted into a rectangular shape and folded in a book fold.

Scotch Method: - (Blitz)
This is the quickest way of making puff pastry.
The word is derived from the German word “Blitzen” meaning lightening.
In this method the chilled margarine is mixed into the sieved flour in pieces about the size walnuts. The folding process is a three fold followed by 3 – Four folds, all of which is accomplished in 25 min.

Baking: -
Puff pastry obtains its lifting power through the sealing of moisture in the dough, as heat penetrates the product, the layers of shortening melt and the water in the dough vaporizes and causes the layers to expand. The shortening also helps by holding in these vapors.
The gluten in the dough expands with the pressure of the steam and holds the steam in.
The shortening melts and penetrates the layers of the dough, making it flaky and tender.
The starch then gelatinizes and the proteins coagulate forming a rigid mass. The structure remains firm and flaky.

Oven Temperature: -
Proper oven temperature is important. A temperature of 204oC – 218oC with an even steady heat is very important.
Too low a temperature allows shortening to weep between the layers of dough resulting in poor quality and low volume.
Too high a temperature prematurely seals the piece and results in low volume and raw centers.

Washing: -
Puff pastry pieces are generally washed with an egg wash. Care should be taken to prevent the wash from running down the sides of the pieces while brushing the top. The eggs will coagulate with the heat of the oven, seal the sides and prevent the pastry from rising evenly. (Poor Volume)

Reasons for imperfect Pastry: -
• Puff pastry shrinks: -
1. Oven too hot
2. Not resting the dough before rolling out.
3. Not resting products before being baked.
4. Use of scrap dough.
5. Dough too soft.
• Puff Lacks Volume: -
1. Too many folds.
2. Not enough folds.
3. Use of scrap dough.
4. Dull cutters.
5. Cold oven.
6. Shortening too soft.
7. Flour too strong.
• Fat Runs Out: -
1. Dough not folded enough.
2. Oven is too cold.
3. Warm pans are used.
4. Melting point of fat is too low.

Steps in Bread-making

There are 12 stepsin bread-making. These steps are applied to all yeast products,with variations depending ona particularproduct.

The steps are--

1. Scaling of ingredients.

2. Mixing.

3. Fermentation.


5 Scaling of the dough.


7.Intermediate proving/ Benching.

8.Moulding/ Panning.





Scaling of ingredients----------

All ingredients must be weighed accurately. Water, egg, milk must be measured by volume.Special care must be taken while measuringspices and other ingredientsused in small quantities.
Special care must be taken when measuring spices and other ingredients which are used in small quantities.This is particularly important with salt, which affects the rate of fermentation.


The objective of this step is-

1. To combine all ingredients into a uniform, smooth dough.

2. To distribute the yeast evenly throughout the dough.

3. To develop gluten.

All the flour, yeast,water, yeast food is mixed sufficiently to make a homogenous mass.Fat should be added later, as it adversly affects water absorption and also gluten development.

Quantity and quality of gluten will decide the length of mixing times.Strong flours will need longer mixing time.

When the dough is properly mixed,the surface of the dough becomes smooth, the surface may also show round coined shaped gas bubbles trapped under a thin film of dough.

If the dough is over- mixed then the gluten structure will break down and rise during fermentation will be poor. The dough will heat up,be sticky and will tend to flatten out during intermediate and final proving. Breads produced from excessively mixed doughs will haveless volume and dark crumbly texture.


After ther dough is correctly mixed it is fermented for a pre-determined time .The yeast acts on the sugars and starchs in the the dough to produce CO2 and alcohol..CO2 raises the dough fabric. Part of the alcohol evaporates, part is converted to acetic acid and the remaining contributes to the charecteristic flavour of bread.

There are three main sources of sugar in the fermenting dough--
---natural sugar presentin flour.
---formula sugar
---sugar produced from starch by enzymes.

The gluten becomes more smoother and more elastic, so it stretches farther and holds more gas.

An under-fermented dough will not develop proper volume and the texture of the product will be under- fermented dough is called a young dough.

An over-fermented dough is called an old dough. An over-fermented dough becomes sticky [ due to over action of enzyme protease and acids], hard to work and slighly sour .


After 2/3rd of the fermented time is over , the dough is knocked back. Knock- back is not hitting the dough with your fist, but a method of deflating the dough, by extending the sides of the dough and putting it in the centre , so that the whole mass comes in contact with fresh air and the dough is virtually turned upside down.

Knock-back helps to equalise the temperature, the temperature of the upper surface is lower than the temperature at the base of the dough, this causes a variation in the speed of fermentation .

Knock-back helps the yeast to fuction efficiently. when the dough has fermented for some-time the yeast cells get surrounded by gas and other fermentation products which slow down their action, as it is drawn away from the food, so knock-back helps to expel
the gas,so that the yeast can carry on its function properly.

Knock-back helps to redistribute the yeast for further growth.


Using a baker's scale,divide the dough into pieces of the same weight, according to the ptoduct being made.

During scaling allowance is made for theweight lossdue to evaporation of moisture in the oven. The weight loss is about 10-13%of the
weight of the dough.

Scaling should be done rapidly and efficiently to avoid over-fermenting the dough


After scaling, the pieces of dough are shaped into a smooth, round balls. While dividing the dough by hand, it is desirable to cut the dough with a dough cutter. Pulling and breaking the dough should be avoided as it disturbs the trends of gluten strands which adversly affects the final texture of the product.

Intermediate Proving--------

Rounded portions of the douigh are allowed to rest for 10-20 minutes. This relaxes the gluten to make the shaping of the dough easier.


The dough piece, soft and pliable, is moulded as per the desired shape. While moulding the pressure should be even throughout the dough piece.Uneven pressure will leave uneven gas pocket of uneven size in the final product.Mouldind should not be too tight or too loose.Moulded pieces are put into clean and well greased pans or trays. For units baked in pans, the seams must be centered on the bottom to avoid splitting during baking.The pan size must be matched to the weight of the dough.


Proofing is a continuation of the process of yeast fermentation that increases the volume of the shaped product.
The bread is proofed under suitable conditions [27-30 degrees] and 70-80% humidity. Under poofing results in poor volume and dense texture. Over proofing results in coarse texture and loss of some flavour.
French bread are given long proof to create its characteristic open texture, its strong gluten helps to withstand the long proof.
Rich doughs are slighly underproofed, because their weaker gluten structure does not withstand too much stretching.

During proofing operation the yeast should have sufficient food to affect a faster gas production. Therefore it is necessary that there is sufficient distatic activity in the flour to produce fermentable sugars for the yeast to carry on its functions.


Afterthe bread has acquired its full volume, it is baked. The temperature and the humidity of the ovenshould be well maintened in order to get good results.

The most important changes that take place are--
1. Oven spring, this is a rapid rise in the oven due to production and expansion of trapped gases as a result of the heat.The yeast is active at first but are killed as the temperature reaches 60 degrees inside the dough.
2. Coagulation of proteins and gelatinization of the starch. The product becomes firm and begins to hold shape.
3. Formation and browingof the crust.

Proofed breads are fragile, they should be handled carefully when being loaded into the oven.


After baking the breads must be removed frm pans and cooled on racks to allow the escape of excess moisture and alcohol created during fermentation.
If the moisture gets trapped between thebresd and the surfaceofthe mould , this will make the product soggy,known as sweating.

When bread is hot the starch granules are in a swollen stateand are held unstably in a gluten framework. If bread is sliced in this state, the granules lump together giving a poor appearance to the slice..


Breads to be consumed within 8 hours may be left on the rack. For longer storage wrap cooled bread in moisture-proof bags to preserve its freshness and to retard staling.



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