Wednesday, March 3, 2010




After water, tea is the most widely-consumed beverage in the world. It has a cooling, slightly bitter, astringent flavour which many enjoy.
There are over 3,000 types of tea in the world. Amazingly, all 3,000 plus of these teas come from the same plant, camellia sinensis. Variations in growing region, time of harvest, parts of the plant harvested, plant variety, processing method, and numerous other factors make the key differences between, say, a delicate Silver Needle white and an assertive Second Flush Assam black. Selecting teas you like and developing your palate doesn’t have to be an arduous task. Once you understand what you are buying and/or drinking, your foray into the world will be much easier. Tea or Camellia Sinensis is an evergreen plant that grows mainly in tropical and sub-tropical climates. Nevertheless, some varieties can also tolerate marine climates. Tea plants require at least 50 inches of rainfall a year and prefer acidic soils. High-quality tea plants are cultivated at elevations of up to 1,500 metres (4,900 ft); at these heights, the plants grow more slowly and acquire a better flavour.A tea plant will grow into a tree if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are pruned to waist height for ease of plucking.
The names popular around the world are derived from Chinese character of the word tea. One is tê and the other is chá.

The derivatives from tê
Language Name Language Name Language Name Language Name Language Name
tee Armenian,Catalan
te Czech
té or thé Danish
te Dutch
tea Esperanto
teo Estonian
tee Faroese
te Finnish
thé West Frisian
tee Galician
té German
Tee Hebrew
tea Icelandic
te Indonesian
teh Irish
tae Italian
tè or thè
tèh Korean
da [ta]
thea Latvian
tēja Leonese

tiè Low Saxon
Tee or
Tei Malay
teh Norwegian
te Occitan

chá Scots Gaelic
teatha Sinhalese
thé Spanish
té Scots
entèh Swedish
te Tamil
thenīr (nīr = water) "theyilai" means "tea leaf" (ilai=leaf) Telugu
tēnīru Welsh

Derivatives from cha or chai
Language Name Language Name Language Name Language Name Language Name
çaj Amharic
shai Arabic
shāy Aramaic
chai Assamese
çay Bangla
cha Bosnian
čaj Bulgarian
chai Capampangan
tsa Croatian
čaj Czech
čaj English
chai Persian
tsaa Georgian
chai Greek
tsái Gujarati
cha Hindi
cha Kannada
Chaha Kazakh
шай shai Kyrgyz
чай, chai Khasi
cha Korean
cha Lao
ชา, saa Macedonian
čaj Malayalam
chahaa Mongolian
tsai Nepali
chiya Oriya
cha Pashto
chai Punjabi
chah Portuguese
chá Romanian
ceai Russian
čaj Slovak
čaj Slovene
čaj Somali
shaah Swahili
saah Tagalog
tsaa Thai
chaa Tibetan
ja Tlingit
çay Turkmen
çay Ukrainian
chai Urdu
chai Uzbek
*trà and chè Tamil
*theyneer andtee cai kikuyu, (kenyan language)

In 1835 the English East India Company, upon discovery of an indigenous variety of Camellia Sinensis in Assam , India , established their first experimental tea plantation there. It was largely unsuccessful at the beginning. In 1856 varieties of tea from the Yunnan and Keemun provinces of China were introduced in Darjeeling , India , and soon thrived. Some of the most prized and expensive Indian black teas come from this high mountain region. One year later tea was cultivated in Ceylon ( Sri Lanka ). Luckily, for tea growers and consumers, a fungus wiped out the coffee crop in Ceylon in 1869, then its' main export. This opened the door to increased tea production and exportation. By the early 1900's tea was being cultivated in Java, Sumatra , Indonesia, Kenya and other parts of Africa . Presently, the United States has been added to the list of tea producers as there is one plantation in North Carolina.


1. Plucking & Leaf Handling :
At the beginning of the growing season, tender new shoots grow from the stalk of the tea bush. These shoots have two leaves and a bud on the end. When these leaves and a bud are picked, they are called the “first flush.”
Once the tea bush has grown its two leaves and a bud, it begins a short period of dormancy. During this time, it grows, but very little. The growth is trimmed to encourage new growth. (Some plantations will use this growth to make very low-grade tea, which will not list a flush and is typically for bags and/or impoverished local markets.) New leaves grow and are harvested. These leaves are the “second flush.”
Indian and Japanese teas are most frequently named by flush.
Plucking round
Plucking round describes the time interval in days between consecutive pluckings. It varies from 4 to 14 days though 7-day round is the most common practice.

Standard of plucking
• Black plucking removes all above tipping level, except unopened buds.
• Standard plucking leaves buds and small one and buds on the bush, remainder plucked to tipping level.
• Coarse plucking leaves buds, one and buds and small two and buds on the bush, remainder plucked to tipping level.

It is a procedure which brings about physical and chemical changes in the flush to produce quality, apart from conditioning the flush for rolling by reducing turgor, weight and volume. Previously the flush used to be withered under the sun. Now this process is generally achieved either by thinly spreading the flush on mats, or in thick layers in troughs for 8-18 hours depending on the condition of the leaves. About 50% moisture is reduced.

3. Rolling : The object of rolling is to macerate the leaf so that the enzymes and their substrates get intimately mixed up. This is achieved mechanically either by the use of an orthodox roller, the rotorvane, or by CTC (crushing,tearing and curling) machines. Before this, the finer leaves are segregated from the coarser ones.Rolling ruptures the cell wall thereby enabling the production of enzymes.

4. Fermentation : It is the process of oxidation of leaves. The mechanical aspect involves spreading out of the leaves macerated by rolling a layer 5-8 cms thick, for 45 minutes to 3 hours, depending on the quality of the leaves. Fermenting machines make the process continuous, that is, every unit of macerated leaf has to be spread out for individual treatment. Tannin is oxidised and the development of colour, flavour and aroma takes place.

5. Drying : It reduces the moisture content of rolled and fermented leaves from 45-50% level to a 3% level in dried black tea. It also allows development of black tea aroma. Drying is physically achieved by blowing hot air through fermented leaves as they are conveyed in chains. The drying process lasts for about 20 minutes.

6. Sorting : Sorting may be defined as a procedure in which particles of bulk tea are separated into grades of different sizes. This sizing can be done either manually or by using different sizing equipments. Sorting meshes of various sizes are used to grade the tea.

7. Blending: tea purchased by merchants is first cleaned to remove any unwanted debris like splinters or stones etc. Expert tea blenders sample the tea by tasting and examining the leaf. The assessment is then compared with the cost of the tea. Then as per the standards specified by the merchant or the end user the teas are blended to achieve a standard and consistent taste. Blending is highly skilled job to ensure a standard product.


1. White Tea

White tea is similar to green tea, in that it's undergone very little processing and no fermentation. But there is a noticeable difference in taste. Most green teas have a distinctive 'grassy' taste to them, but white tea does not. The flavour is described as light, and sweet. You should steep white tea in water that is below the boiling point.
There is also considerably less caffeine in white tea than the other varieties (15mg per serving, compared to 40mg for black tea, and 20mg for green). Some studies have also shown that white tea contains more active cancer-fighting antioxidants than green tea.
As with all teas, there are many varieties of white tea, with poetic names such as: white peony, golden moon, silver needle and white cloud. White teas are produced mostly in China and Japan, but the Darjeeling region of India also produces some fine white teas.

2. Green Tea

Green tea is nothing more than the leaves of the camellia sinensis that have been processed a certain way. Green teas, like white teas, are closer to tasting like fresh leaves or grass than the black or oolong. They are also lower in caffeine and have higher antioxidant properties.

First, the green leaves are seen how much oxidation should take place before drying them out.Tea leaves have enzymes in their veins. When the leaf is broken, bruised, or crushed, the enzymes are exposed to oxygenresulting in oxidation. The amount of oxidation depends upon how much of the enzymes are exposed .

Processing of Green Tea
The processing of green tea is similar to that of white tea in that it does not oxidize. After the leaves are plucked, they are (sometimes) laid out to wither for about 8 to 24 hours. This lets most of the water evaporate. Then, in order to neutralize the enzymes thus preventing oxidation, the leaves are steamed or pan fried. Next the leaves are rolled up in various ways and tightness. After that, a final drying takes place. Since no oxidation took place, the tea has more of a green appearance. From there, it goes off to be sorted, graded, and packaged.

3. Oolong Tea

Oolong teas are the most difficult of the four types of teas to process. The best way to describe oolong tea is that they are somewhere in between green and black tea. This is because they are only partially oxidized during the processing.

Oolong tea is gently rolled after picking allowing the essential oils to react with the air and slowly oxidize. This process turns the leaf darker with time and produces distinctive fragrances. When the leaf has reached the desired oxidation the leaf is heated, in a process called 'panning', to stop the process. It's then rolled to form the tea into its final shape. The resulting tea can be anywhere between a green and a black, depending on the processing method. This tea is handcrafted, undergoing a labor intensive process. The tea maker must carefully balance many elements in the critical few hours after the leaf is picked including weather conditions, quality of the leaf, and the time the leaf oxidizes. The finest Oolongs are often prepared and enjoyed Gung Fu style to savor their complex tastes and fragrances.

The processing of oolong tea requires only a partial oxidation of the leaves. After the leaves are plucked, they are laid out to wither for about 8 to 24 hours. This lets most of the water evaporate. Then the leaves are tossed in baskets in order to bruise the edges of the leaves. This bruising only causes the leaves to partially oxidize because only a portion of the enzymes are exposed to air. Next, the leaves steamed in order to neutralize the enzymes and stop any oxidation. Oolong tea can have varying degrees of oxidation. Some are closer to black teas, and some are closer to green.

4. Black Tea

Black teas are the most consumed of the four types of teas. They are the highest in caffeine. Black tea is the most popular tea in the world. It is the tea most widely used in making iced tea and English tea. Since the process of making black tea consists of three main stages, ‘cut’, ‘torn’ and ‘curled’, it is also known as C.T.C tea. After cutting, the leaves are first spread on shelves called withering racks. Air is blown over the leaves to remove excess

moisture, leaving them soft and flexible. These withered leaves are then crushed between the rollers of a machine to release their flavoured juices. In the tearing process the cells of the leaves are exposed and the oxidation process begins. They are then taken to the fermenting room where under controlled temperature and humidity, they change into copper colour. Finally they are dried in ovens, where they are curled by heat and become brownish black.

It is made by steaming the leaves in large vats. The steaming prevents the leaves from changing its green colour, hence the name. The leaves are then crushed in a machine and dried in ovens. It is produced by using many of the same techniques that were practiced centuries ago.

5. Pu-erh Tea

Pu-erh teas come from the Yunnan province in China and have a strong earthy flavor. Pu-erh has been praised for generations for it's flavor and health benefits. It's processed according to an ancient technique (which used to be a state secret) that involves aging the leaves. It is often formed into bricks and is one of the few teas that ages well.
Pu-erh tea is moderate in taste, not as strong as black tea. It can cut grease, help digestion, warm stomach, help produce saliva and slake thirst, dispel the effects of alcohol and refresh one’s mind. Pu-erh tea has functions of lowering the triglyceride, cholesterol, hyperuricemia in the body.

6. Scented Tea

Scented or Flower tea is either green or white tea that has been infused with certain flowers, which impart a delicate and interesting taste, and of course a wonderful aroma. As with black tea and milk or sugar, flowers were added to green tea originally to disguise a less than favorable taste in the poorer varieties. This is still the case with many commercially produced flower teas, which hide the taste of very cheap tea behind a strong flowery presence. Flower teas, in particular the delicious jasmine, have gained such a following both in Asia and the Western world, that many people only drink this variety. The Seven Cups jasmine teas combine really fine quality green and white teas with a subtle but distinct jasmine flavour, and are a real treat, especially for dedicated jasmine fans.


Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. They are seeds of coffee cherries that grow on trees in over 70 countries. Green (unroasted) coffee is one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world. Due to its caffeine content, coffee can have a stimulating effect in humans. Today, coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide.

It is thought that the energizing effect of the coffee bean plant was first recognized in Yemen in Arabia and the north east of Ethiopia, and the cultivation of coffee first expanded in the Arab world. The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas. Coffee has played an important role in many societies throughout history. In Africa and Yemen, it was used in religious ceremonies. As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia. It was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons, and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe.

Coffee berries, which contain the coffee bean, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea arabica, and the hardier Coffea canephora (also known as Coffea robusta). The latter is resistant to the devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Both are cultivated primarily in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. There is a third variety called the Coffea Liberica, slightly inferior but also popular. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavour. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways.
An important export commodity, coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004, and in 2005, it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value. Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions; whether the overall effects of coffee are ultimately positive or negative has been widely disputed. However, the method of brewing coffee has been found to be important.
The Manufacturing Process
• Each year coffee is harvested during the dry season when the coffee cherries are bright red, glossy, and firm.
• Ripe cherries are either harvested by hand, stripped from the tree with both unripe and overripe beans, or all the coffee beans are collected using a harvesting machine. These processes are called selective picking, stripping, and mechanical harvesting, respectively. To maximize the amount of ripe coffee harvested, it is necessary to selectively pick the ripe coffee beans from the tree by hand and leave behind unripe, green beans to be harvested at a later time.
Drying and husking the cherries
• The cherries are dried and husked using one of two methods.
o The dry method is an older, primitive, and labor-intensive process of distributing the cherries in the sun, raking them several times a day, and allowing them to dry. When they have dried to the point at which they contain only 12 percent water, the beans' husks become shriveled. At this stage they are hulled, either by hand or by a machine.
o In the wet method, the hulls are removed before the beans have dried. Although the fruit is initially processed in a pulping machine that removes most of the material surrounding the beans, some of this glutinous covering remains after pulping. This residue is removed by letting the beans ferment in tanks, where their natural enzymes digest the gluey substance over a period of 18 to 36 hours. Upon removal from the fermenting tank, the beans are washed, dried by exposure to hot air, and put into large mechanical stirrers called hullers. There, the beans' last parchment covering, the pergamino, crumbles and falls away easily. The huller then polishes the bean to a clean, glossy finish.
Cleaning and grading the beans
• The beans are then placed on a conveyor belt that carries them past workers who remove sticks and other debris. Next, they are graded
o according to size,
o the location and altitude of the plantation where they were grown,
o drying and husking methods and
o Taste.
All these factors contribute to certain flavors that consumers will be able to select thanks in part to the grade.
• Once these processes are completed, workers select and pack particular types and grades of beans to fill orders from the various roasting companies that will finish preparing the beans. When beans (usually robusta) are harvested under the undesirable conditions of hot, humid countries or coastal regions, they must be shipped as quickly as possible, because such climates encourage insects and fungi that can severely damage a shipment.
• When the coffee beans arrive at a roasting plant, they are again cleaned and sorted by mechanical screening devices to remove leaves, bark, and other remaining debris. If the beans are not to be decaffeinated, they are ready for roasting.

• If the coffee is to be decaffeinated, it is now processed using either a solvent or a water method.
o In the first process, the coffee beans are treated with a solvent (usually methylene chloride) that leaches out the caffeine. If this decaffeination method is used, the beans must be thoroughly washed to remove traces of the solvent prior to roasting.
o The other method entails steaming the beans to bring the caffeine to the surface and then scraping off this caffeine-rich layer.
• The beans are roasted in huge commercial roasters according to procedures and specifications which vary among manufacturers (specialty shops usually purchase beans directly from the growers and roast them on-site). The most common process entails placing the beans in a large metal cylinder and blowing hot air into it. An older method, called singeing, calls for placing the beans in a metal cylinder that is then rotated over an electric, gas, or charcoal heater.
• Regardless of the particular method used, roasting gradually raises the temperature of the beans to between 431 and 449 degrees Fahrenheit (220-230 degrees Celsius). This triggers the release of steam, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and other volatiles, reducing the weight of the beans by 14 to 23 percent. The pressure of these escaping internal gases causes the beans to swell, and they increase their volume by 30 to 100 percent. Roasting also darkens the color of the beans, gives them a crumbly texture, and triggers the chemical reactions that imbue the coffee with its familiar aroma (which it has not heretofore possessed).
• After leaving the roaster, the beans are placed in a cooling vat, wherein they are stirred while cold air is blown over them. If the coffee being prepared is high-quality, the cooled beans will now be sent through an electronic sorter equipped to detect and eliminate beans that emerged from the roasting process too light or too dark.
• If the coffee is to be pre-ground, the manufacturer mills it immediately after roasting. Special types of grinding have been developed for each of the different types of coffee makers, as each functions best with coffee ground to a specific fineness.

Instant coffee

• If the coffee is to be instant, it is I V brewed with water in huge percolators after the grinding stage. An extract is clarified from the brewed coffee and sprayed into a large cylinder. As it falls downward through this cylinder, it enters a warm air stream that converts it into a dry powder.
• Because it is less vulnerable to flavor and aroma loss than other types of coffee, whole bean coffee is usually packaged in foil-lined bags. If it is to retain its aromatic qualities, pre-ground coffee must be hermetically sealed: it is usually packaged in impermeable plastic film, aluminum foil, or cans. Instant coffee picks up moisture easily, so it is vacuum-packed in tin cans or glass jars before being shipped to retail stores.
Environmental Concerns
• Methylene chloride, the solvent used to decaffeinate beans, has come under federal scrutiny in recent years. Many people charge that rinsing the beans does not completely remove the chemical, which they suspect of being harmful to human health. Although the Food and Drug Administration has consequently ruled that methylene chloride residue cannot exceed 10 parts per million, the water method of decaffeination has grown in popularity and is expected to replace solvent decaffeination completely.

This odour descriptor is somewhat reminiscent of the smell of animals. It is not a fragrant aroma like musk but has the characteristic odour of wet fur, sweat, leather, hides or urine. It is not necessarily considered as a negative attribute but is generally used to describe strong notes.
This odour descriptor is similar to that of an ashtray, the odour of smokers' fingers or the smell one gets when cleaning out a fireplace. It is not used as a negative attribute. Generally speaking this descriptor is used by the tasters to indicate the degree of roast.
This odour and flavour descriptor is similar to that found in burnt food. The odour is associated with smoke produced when burning wood. This descriptor is frequently used to indicate the degree of roast commonly found by tasters in dark-roasted or oven-roasted coffees.
This odour descriptor is reminiscent of chemicals, medicines and the smell of hospitals. This term is used to describe coffees having aromas such as rio flavour, chemical residues or highly aromatic coffees which produce large amounts of volatiles.
This aroma descriptor is reminiscent of the aroma and flavour of cocoa powder and chocolate (including dark chocolate and milk chocolate). It is an aroma that is sometimes referred to as sweet.
This aroma descriptor is reminiscent of the odour and flavour produced when caramelizing sugar without burning it. Tasters should be cautioned not to use this attribute to describe a burning note.
This descriptor includes aromas characteristic of cereal, malt and toast. It includes scents such as the aroma and flavour of uncooked or roasted grain (including roasted corn, barley or wheat), malt extract and the aroma and flavour of freshly baked bread and freshly made toast. This descriptor has a common denominator, a grain-type aroma. The aromas in this descriptor were grouped together since tasters used these terms interchangeably when evaluating standards of each one.
The characteristic odour of fresh earth, wet soil or humus. Sometimes associated with moulds and reminiscent of raw potato flavour, considered as an undesirable flavour when perceived in coffee.
This aroma descriptor is similar to the fragrance of flowers. It is associated with the slight scent of different types of flowers including honeysuckle, jasmine, dandelion and nettles. It is mainly found when an intense fruity or green aroma is perceived but rarely found having a high intensity by itself.
This aroma is reminiscent of the odour and taste of fruit. The natural aroma of berries is highly associated with this attribute. The perception of high acidity in some coffees is correlated with the citrus characteristic. Tasters should be cautioned not to use this attribute to describe the aroma of unripe or overripe fruit.
This aroma descriptor includes three terms which are associated with odours reminiscent of a freshly mowed lawn, fresh green grass or herbs, green foliage, green beans or unripe fruit.
This aroma is reminiscent of the odour and flavour of fresh nuts (distinct from rancid nuts) and not of bitter almonds.
This aroma descriptor includes two terms which are associated with odours reminiscent of deterioration and oxidation of several products. Rancid as the main indicator of fat oxidation mainly refers to rancid nuts and rotten is used as an indicator of deteriorated vegetables or non-oily products. Tasters should be cautioned not to apply these descriptors to coffees that have strong notes but no signs of deterioration.
This odour descriptor is characteristic of the smell of hot tyres, rubber bands and rubber stoppers. It is not considered a negative attribute but has a characteristic strong note highly recognisable in some coffees.
This aroma descriptor is typical of the odour of sweet spices such as cloves, cinnamon and allspice. Tasters are cautioned not to use this term to describe the aroma of savoury spices such as pepper, oregano and Indian spices.
This aroma descriptor is reminiscent of the odour and taste of tobacco but should not be used for burnt tobacco.
This terms is used to describe the combined sensation of smell, taste and mouthfeel experiences when drinking wine. It is generally perceived when a strong acidic or fruity note is found. Tasters should be cautioned not to apply this term to a sour or fermented flavour.
This aroma descriptor is reminiscent of the smell of dry wood, an oak barrel, dead wood or cardboard paper.

A basic taste characterised by the solution of an organic acid. A desirable sharp and pleasing taste particularly strong with certain origins as opposed to an over-fermented sour taste.
A primary taste characterised by the solution of caffeine, quinine and certain alkaloids. This taste is considered desirable up to a certain level and is affected by the degree of roast brewing procedures.
This is a basic taste descriptor characterised by solutions of sucrose or fructose which are commonly associated with sweet aroma descriptors such as fruity, chocolate and caramel. It is generally used for describing coffees which are free from off-flavours.
A primary taste characterised by a solution of sodium chloride or other salts.
This basic taste descriptor refers to an excessively sharp, biting and unpleasant flavour (such as vinegar or acetic acid). It is sometimes associated with the aroma of fermented coffee. Tasters should be cautious not to confuse this term with acidity which is generally considered a pleasant and desirable taste in coffee.
This attribute descriptor is used to describe the physical properties of the beverage. A strong but pleasant full mouthfeel characteristic as opposed to being thin.
This attribute is characteristic of an after-taste sensation consistent with a dry feeling in the mouth, undesirable in coffee.
Coffee Preparations:
An affogato (Italian for "drowned") is a coffee-based beverage or dessert. "Affogato style", which refers to the act of topping a drink or dessert with espresso, may also incorporate caramel sauce or chocolate sauce.
Cafe Americano
Café Américano or simply Americano (the name is also spelled with varying capitalization and use of diacritics: e.g. Café Americano, Cafe Americano, etc.) is a style of coffee prepared by adding espresso to hot water, giving a similar strength but different flavor from regular drip coffee. The strength of an Americano varies with the number of shots of espresso added.
• Long black
• Lungo
• Red eye
Café au lait
A café au lait is a French coffee drink. In Europe, "café au lait" stems from the same continental tradition as "caffè Latte" in Italy, "café con leche" in Spain, "kawa biała" ("white coffee") in Poland, "Milchkaffee" in Germany, "Grosser Brauner" in Austria, "koffie verkeerd" in Netherlands, and "café com leite" in Portugal, simply "coffee with milk". In northern Europe, café au lait is the name most often used in coffee shops. It's is a coffee beverage consisting strong or bold coffee (sometimes espresso) mixed with scalded milk in approximately a 1:1 ratio.
Café Bombon
Popular in Valencia, Spain, and spreading gradually to the rest of the country, a café bombón is an espresso served with sweetened condensed milk in a 1:1 ratio. The condensed milk is added to the espresso. For visual effect, a glass is used, and the condensed milk is added slowly to sink underneath the coffee and create two separate bands of contrasting colour - though these layers are customarily stirred together before consumption. Some establishments merely serve an espresso with a sachet of condensed milk for patrons to make themselves.

Caffè latte
A caffè Latte is the Italian name for coffee ("caffè") with milk ("latte"). In Europe, "caffè Latte"" stems from the same continental tradition as "café au lait" in France, "café con leche" in Spain, "kawa biała" ("white coffee") in Poland, "Milchkaffee" in Germany, "Kaffee verkehrt" in Austria, "koffie verkeerd" in Netherlands, and "café com leite" in Portugal, simply "coffee with milk". It's is a coffee beverage consisting strong or bold coffee (sometimes espresso) mixed with scalded milk in approximately a 1:1 ratio.
Café mélange
A café mélange is a black coffe mixed (french "mélange") or covered with whipped cream, popular in Austria, Switzerland and the Netherlands.
Cafe mocha
A café mocha is a variant of a caffè latte. Like a latte, it is typically one third espresso and two thirds steamed milk, but a portion of chocolate is added, typically in the form of a chocolate syrup, although other vending systems use instant chocolate powder. Mochas can contain dark or milk chocolate.
The term moccaccino is used in some regions of Europe and the Middle East to describe Café Latte with cocoa or chocolate. In the U.S. it usually refers to a cappuccino made with chocolate.
Ca phe sua da
Cà phê sữa đá or cafe sua da (Vietnamese: Cà phê sữa đá) is a unique Vietnamese coffee recipe. Literally, ca phe sua da means "iced milk coffee". Ca phe sua da can be made simply by mixing black coffee with about a quarter to a half as much sweetened condensed milk and then pouring it over ice. A substitute made by many Vietnamese immigrants in the Southern U.S., particularly in Louisiana is a dark French roast, often with chicory; otherwise an imported Vietnamese-grown and roasted coffee is used when it is available. The coffee is traditionally brewed with a small metal Vietnamese drip filter into a cup containing the condensed milk. The condensed milk and coffee are stirred together and then poured over the ice. Ca phe sua nong (Vietnamese: 'cà phê sữa nóng') — literally, "hot milk coffee" — is made by excluding the ice.

Cappuccino is a coffee-based drink prepared with espresso, hot milk, and steamed milk foam. A cappuccino differs from a caffè latte in that it is prepared with much less steamed or textured milk than the caffè latte with the total of espresso and milk/foam making up between approximately 150 ml and 180 ml (5 and 6 fluid ounces). A cappuccino is traditionally served in a porcelain cup, which has far better heat retention characteristics than glass or paper. The foam on top of the cappuccino acts as an insulator and helps retain the heat of the liquid, allowing it to stay hotter longer.
A cortado is an espresso (also known as "Pingo" or "Garoto") "cut" (from the Spanish and Portuguese cortar) with a small amount of warm milk to reduce the acidity. The ratio of milk to coffee is between 1:1 - 1:2, and the milk is added after the espresso. The steamed milk hasn't much foam, but many baristas make some micro foam to make latte art. It is popular in Spain and Portugal, as well as throughout Latin America, where it is drunk in the afternoon. In Cuba, it is known as a cortadito, and in Catalan it's called a tallat or trencat. It's usually served in a special glass, often with a metal ring base and a metal wire handle. There are several variations, including cortado condensada (espresso with condensed milk) and leche y leche (with condensed milk and cream on top).

Eiskaffee, literally "ice cream coffee", is a popular German drink consisting of chilled coffee, milk, sweetener, vanilla ice cream, and sometimes whipped cream.
Flat white
A flat white is prepared by pouring the creamy steamed milk from the bottom of the jug over a single shot (30ml) of espresso.
The drink is sometimes served in a small 150-160ml ceramic cup. The stretched and texturised milk is prepared by entraining air into the milk and folding the top layer into the lower layers. To achieve the "flat", non-frothy texture the steamed milk is poured from the bottom of the jug, holding back the lighter froth on the top in order to access milk with smaller bubbles, making the drink smooth and velvety in texture.
Frappuccino is the name and registered trademark of a Starbucks blended ice beverage and a bottled coffee beverage.
Galão is a hot drink from Portugal made of espresso and foamed milk. In all similar to caffè latte or café au lait, it comes in a tall glass with about one quarter coffee, 3 quarters foamed milk. When the proportion is 1:1 it is called "meia de leite" and it comes in a cup.
Greek frappé coffee
Greek frappé (Café frappé) (Greek: φραπές) is a foam-covered iced coffee drink made from spray-dried instant coffee. It is very popular in Greece especially during summer, but has now spread on to other countries. In French, when describing a drink, the word frappé means shaken and/or chilled; however, in popular Greek culture, the word frappé is predominantly taken to refer to the shaking associated with the preparation of a café frappé.
Iced coffee
Iced coffee is a cold variant of the normally hot beverage coffee.
• Farmers Union Iced Coffee
• Toddy coffee

Indian filter coffee
South Indian Coffee, also known as Madras Filter Coffee or Kaapi (Tamil phonetic rendering of "coffee') is a sweet milky coffee made from dark roasted coffee beans (70%-80%) and chicory (20%-30%), especially popular in the southern states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The most commonly used coffee beans are Peaberry (preferred), Arabica, Malabar and Robusta grown in the hills of Kerala (Malabar region), Karnataka (Kodagu, Chikkamagaluru) and Tamil Nadu (Nilgiris District,Yercaud and Kodaikanal).
Instant coffee
Instant coffee is a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans. Through various manufacturing processes the coffee is dehydrated into the form of powder or granules. These can be rehydrated with hot water to provide a drink similar (though not identical) to conventional coffee. At least one brand of instant coffee is also available in concentrated liquid form.
• Chock full o'Nuts
• Farmers Union Iced Coffee
• Japanese canned coffee
• Kenco
• Moccona
• Mr. Brown Coffee
• Nescafé
Kopi susu
Kopi susu is found in (at least) Malaysian Borneo and Indonesia and very similar to the following entry for Ca phe sua nong. Literally, kopi susu means "coffee milk ". Served in a glass kopi susu can be made simply by mixing black coffee (arabica) with about a quarter to a half a glass of sweetened condensed milk then let stand to cool and allow the grounds to sink on the bottom. You should not drink this to the end unless you want to "eat" the ground coffee. Kopi Turbruk is as above but uses sugar intead of sweetened condensed milk.
Liqueur coffee
A liqueur coffee, as its name suggests, is a coffee brew with a 25 ml shot of liqueur. This brew is usually served in a clear, clean, pre-heated, liqueur coffee glass with the coffee and cream separated for good visual and taste effect. The liqueur of choice is added first with a teaspoon of raw cane sugar mixed in. The glass in then filled to within an inch of the top with good, strong, fresh filter coffee. Fresh, chilled, additive free, slightly whipped cream is then poured carefully over the back of a cold teaspoon, so that it floats on top of the coffee and liqueur mixture. The sugar is required in the coffee mixture to help the cream float.
• Irish Coffee (Whisky)
• Brandy Coffee (Brandy)
• English Coffee (Gin)
• Calypso Coffee (Tia Maria or Kahlúa and Rum)
• Jamaican Coffee (Tia Maria & Rum)
• Shin Shin Coffee (Rum)
• Baileys Irish Cream Coffee
• Monk's Coffee (Bénédictine)
• Seville Coffee (Cointreau)
• Witch's Coffee (Strega)
• Russian Coffee (Vodka)
• Australian Coffee (Cask Wine/Goon)
• Corfu Coffee (Koum Quat liquor)
• Kaffee Fertig (coffee with Swiss prune schnapps)
• Caffè corretto (that is an Italian beverage, consists of a shot of espresso "corrected" with a shot of liquor, usually grappa, brandy or sambuca.)
• Coffee liqueurs (ex. The Evil Monk, Kahlúa, Kamora)
Macchiato, meaning something like “spotted”, is an Espresso with a dash of foamed milk. At first sight it resembles a small Cappuccino but even if the ingredients are the same as those used for Cappuccino a Macchiato has a much stronger and aromatic taste. The milk is foamed directly into the espresso cup, which is then put under the coffee outlet. The espresso is then drawn into the cup. Cocoa is then sprinkled over the drink.[5]
Mochasippi is a drink prepared by baristas in Community Coffee houses located in the Southern United States, commonly known as CC's. It is similar to the Mocha Frappuccino of Starbucks coffee houses. Unlike a Frappuccino, a Mochasippi contains actual shots of espresso rather than a powdered instant coffee.
Turkish coffee
Beans for Turkish coffee are ground or pounded to the finest possible powder, finer than for any other way of preparation. Preparation of Turkish coffee consists of immersing the coffee grounds in water which is most of the time hot but not boiling for long enough to dissolve the flavoursome compounds. While prolonged boiling of coffee gives it an unpleasant "cooked" or "burnt" taste, very brief boiling does not, and bringing it to the boil shows without guesswork that it has reached the appropriate temperature. In Turkey, four degrees of sweetness are used. The Turkish terms and approximate amounts are as follows: sade (plain; no sugar), az şekerli (little sugar; half a level teaspoon of sugar), orta şekerli (medium sugar; one level teaspoon), and çok şekerli (a lot of sugar; one and a half or two level teaspoons). The coffee and the desired amount of sugar are stirred until all coffee sinks and the sugar is dissolved. Following this, the spoon is removed and the pot is put on moderate heat; if too high, the coffee comes to the boil too quickly, without time to extract the flavour. No stirring is done beyond this point, as it would dissolve the foam. Just as the coffee comes to the boil the pot is removed from the heat. It is usually kept off the heat for a short time, then brought to the boil a second and a third time, then the coffee is poured into the cups. Getting the thickest possible layer of foam is considered the peak of the coffee maker's art. One way to maximise this is to pour slowly and try to lift the pot higher and higher as the pouring continues. Regardless of these techniques, getting the same amount of foam into all cups is hard to achieve, and the cup with the most foam is considered the best of the lot.
Vienna coffee
A "Vienna coffee" is the name of a popular traditional cream based coffee beverage. It is made by preparing two shots of strong black espresso in a standard sized coffee cup and infusing the coffee with whipped cream(as a replacement for milk and sugar) until the cup is full. Then the cream is twirled and optionally topped off with chocolate sprinklings. The coffee is drunk through the cream top.
Yuanyang, sometimes also called Ying Yong, is a popular beverage in Hong Kong, made of a mixture of coffee and Hong Kong-style milk tea. It was originally served at dai pai dongs (open air food vendors) and cha chaan tengs (cafe), but is now available in various types of restaurants. It can be served hot or cold. The name yuanyang, which refers to mandarin ducks, is a symbol of conjugal love in Chinese culture, as the birds usually appear in pairs and the male and female look very different. This same connotation of "pair" of two unlike items is used to name this drink.

Kopi Luwak coffee comes from the Indonesian island of Sumatra, an area well-known for its excellent coffee. Also native to the area is a small civit-like animal called a Paradoxurus. That's the scientific name, the locals call them luwaks. These little mammals live in the trees and one of their favorite foods is the red, ripe coffee cherry. They eat the cherries, bean and all. While the bean is in the little guy's stomach, it undergoes chemical treatments and fermentations. The bean finishes its journey through the digestive system, and exits. The still-intact beans are collected from the forest floor, and are cleaned, then roasted and ground just like any other coffee.
The resulting coffee is said to be like no other. It has a rich, heavy flavour with hints of caramel or chocolate. Other terms used to describe it are earthy, musty and exotic. The body is almost syrupy and it's very smooth.
Kona coffee
It is the market name for coffee (Coffea arabica) cultivated on the slopes of Hualalai and Mauna Loa in the North and South Kona Districts of the Big Island of Hawaii. This coffee has developed a reputation that has made it one of the most expensive and sought-after coffees in the world. Only coffee from the Kona Districts can be legally described as "Kona". The unique Kona weather pattern of sunny mornings, cloud cover or rain in the afternoons, little wind and mild nights combined with porous, mineral rich volcanic soil, creates favorable coffee growing conditions. The Hawaiian translation for the word "Coffee" is Kope, pronounced "co-Pay"
Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee or Jamaica Blue Mountain Coffee is a classification of coffee grown in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. The best lots of Blue Mountain coffee are noted for their mild flavour and lack of bitterness. Over the last several decades, this coffee has developed a reputation that has made it one of the most expensive and sought-after coffees in the world. In addition to its use for brewed coffee, the beans are the flavor base of Tia Maria coffee liqueur.


1—Marlon Harland Pot;
2—Universal Percolator;
3—Galt Vacuum Process Coffee Maker;
4—Universal Electric Urn;
5—English Coffee Biggin (Langley Ware);
6—Universal Cafenoira (Glass Filter);
7—Vienna (Bohemian or Carlsbad) Coffee Machine;
8—Tru-Bru Pot; 9—Tricolator;
10—Manning-Bowman Percolator;
11—Blanke's Sanitary Coffee Pot;
12—Phylax Coffee Maker;
13—Private-Estate Coffee Maker;
14—American French Drip Pot;
15—Kin-Hee Pot;
16—Silex Opalescent Glass Filter;
17—French Drip Pot (Langley Ware).


Milk is the most nutritive, naturally occurring, beverage in the world. Also, it is a great raw material or starting ingredient for a world of culinary delights. Especially in India it has a terrific and tremendous cultural, social and economic significance.

Milk comes from a variety of sources and across the world a lot of products which are non-dairy in nature are often referred to as milk. The objective of this enquiry is to view this as hospitality and food professionals; and get, the various details otherwise unknown to those who do not attend catering college.

Nutritional value
Milk is home to 9 major nutrients, viz;
• Fat 2%
• Protein 8 grams
• Calcium 285 mg, which is 22% to 29%, the daily intake recommended of calcium for an adult
• Carbohydrates
• Sugars (lactose)
• Cholesterol
• Saturated fatty acids
• Mono-unsaturated fatty acids
• Poly-unsaturated fatty acids

Pasteurization is typically associated with milk. Pasteurization typically uses temperatures below boiling since at very high temperatures milk, casein micelles will irreversibly aggregate (or "curdle").
There are three main types of pasteurization used today:
1. High Temperature/Short Time (HTST) and
2. Extended Shelf Life (ESL) treatment.
3. Ultra-high temperature (UHT or ultra-heat treated) is also used for milk treatment.
First suggested by Franz von Soxhlet in 1886, HTST pasteurised milk typically has a refrigerated shelf life of two to three weeks. In the HTST process, milk is forced between metal plates or through pipes heated on the outside by hot water, and is heated to 71.7 °C (161 °F) for 15–20 seconds. HTST pasteurization processes must be designed so that the milk is heated evenly, and no part of the milk is subject to a shorter time or a lower temperature.

In the ESL direct heating plant, the product is first regeneratively preheated to 70 °C – 85 °C and then heated to maximum 127 °C by direct steam injection. The milk is held at this temperature for approx. 3 seconds and is then cooled down to 70 °C - 85 °C in a flash cooler. To ensure the product is well stabilized, aseptic homogenization is carried out at a temperature of approx. 70 °C.As a result of these extremely short heating and cooling times at a high heating temperature, the direct process offers the advantage of top product quality.

UHT processing holds the milk at a temperature of 135 °C (275 °F) for a fraction of a second. When UHT treatment is combined with sterile handling and container technology; (such as aseptic packaging), it can even be stored unrefrigerated for 3–4 months.

Milk simply labelled "pasteurised" is usually treated with the HTST method, whereas milk labelled "ultra-pasteurised" or simply "UHT" has been treated with the UHT method.

Pasteurization may have been a response to the hazards and contamination issues that resulted from the newly emerging "industrialised" dairy industry. It's likely that, with the burgeoning growth of large-scale, longer-distance distribution networks, the rise of chain-store supermarkets, and the resulting impetus for larger-herd dairy operations and mechanised milking, there came a corresponding inability to preserve the quality and inherent bacterial-resistance qualities of fresh milk being marketed in a localised area.

Effectiveness of Pasteurization
Milk pasteurization has been subject to increasing scrutiny in recent years, due to the discovery of pathogens that are both widespread and heat resistant (able to survive pasteurization in significant numbers). Researchers have developed more sensitive diagnostics, such as real-time PCR and improved culture methods that have enabled them to identify pathogens in pasteurised milk. The HTST pasteurization standard was designed to kill 99.999% of the number of viable micro-organisms in milk. This is considered adequate for destroying almost all yeasts, mould, and common spoilage bacteria and also to ensure adequate destruction of common pathogenic heat-resistant organisms (including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis and Coxiella burnetii, which causes fever).

Microfiltration is a process that partially replaces pasteurization and produces milk with fewer microorganisms and longer shelf life without a change in the taste of the milk. In this process, cream is separated from the whey and is pasteurized in the usual way, but the whey is forced through ceramic micro filters that trap 99.9% of microorganisms in the milk (as compared to 95% killing of microorganisms in conventional pasteurization). The whey is then recombined with the pasteurized cream to reconstitute the original milk composition.



Upon standing for 12 to 24 hours, fresh milk has a tendency to separate into a high-fat cream layer on top of a larger, low-fat milk layer. The cream is often sold as a separate product with its own uses; today the separation of the cream from the milk is usually accomplished rapidly in centrifugal cream separators. The fat globules rise to the top of a container of milk because fat is less dense than water. The smaller the globules, the more other molecular-level forces prevent this from happening.

The cream rises in cow's milk much more quickly than a simple model would predict: rather than isolated globules, the fat in the milk tends to form into clusters containing about a million globules, held together by a number of minor whey proteins. These clusters rise faster than individual globules can. The fat globules in milk from goats, sheep, and water buffalo do not form clusters so readily and are smaller to begin with; cream is very slow to separate from these milks.

In order to understand how centrifugal separation works, we shall follow the course of milk through a separator bowl. As milk flows into a rapidly revolving bowl it is acted upon by both gravity and the centrifugal force generated by rotation. The centrifugal force is 5000 to 10 000 times that of gravity, and the effect of gravity thus becomes negligible. Therefore, milk entering the bowl is thrown to the outer wall of the bowl rather than falling to the bottom. Milk serum has a higher specific gravity than fat and is thrown to the outer part of the bowl while the cream is forced towards the centre
of the bowl.


Milk is often homogenized, a treatment which prevents a cream layer from separating out of the milk. The milk is pumped at high pressures through very narrow tubes, breaking up the fat globules through turbulence and cavitations. A greater number of smaller particles possess more total surface area than a smaller number of larger ones, and the original fat globule membranes cannot completely cover them.

The exposed fat globules are briefly vulnerable to certain enzymes present in milk, which could break down the fats and produce rancid flavours. To prevent this, the enzymes are inactivated by pasteurizing the milk immediately before or during homogenization.

Homogenized milk tastes blander but feels creamier in the mouth than unhomogenized; it is whiter and more resistant to developing off flavours.

Creamline, or cream-top, milk is unhomogenized; it may or may not have been pasteurized. Milk which has undergone high-pressure homogenization, sometimes labelled as "ultra-homogenized," has a longer shelf life than milk which has undergone ordinary homogenization at lower pressures. Homogenized milk may be more digestible than unhomogenized milk.

Classification of milk

I. Based on fat content
• Whole milk
• Reduced-fat milk (2%)
• Low-fat milk (1%)
• Skimmed milk/non-fat milk
• Half & half

"Whole" milk refers to Creamline (unhomogenized) milk.
"Homogenized" milk refers to milk which is 3.25% butterfat (or milk fat).
There are also skim, 1%, and 2% milk fat milks.
A blended mixture of half cream and half milk is often sold in small quantities and is called half-and-half. Half-and-half is used for creaming coffee and similar uses.


The term milk is also used for whitish non-animal substitutes such as soy milk, rice milk, almond milk, and coconut milk.


Soy milk (also called soya milk, soymilk, soybean milk, or soy juice) and sometimes referred to as soy drink/beverage is a beverage made from soybeans. A stable emulsion of oil, water, and protein, it is produced by soaking dry soybeans and grinding them with water.
Soy milk contains about the same proportion of protein as cow's milk: around 3.5%; also 2% fat, 2.9% carbohydrate, and 0.5% ash. Soy milk can be made at home with traditional kitchen tools or with a soy milk machine.


Rice milk is a kind of grain milk processed from rice. It is mostly made from brown rice and commonly unsweetened. The sweetness in most rice milk varieties is generated by a natural enzymatic process. Some rice milk kinds may nevertheless be sweetened with sugarcane syrup or other sugars.


Almond milk is a milky drink made from ground almonds. Unlike animal milk, almond milk contains no cholesterol or lactose. It can be used as a substitute for animal milk in many recipes, and is also completely vegan.
Commercial almond milk products such as brand Almond Breeze come in plain, vanilla, or chocolate flavours. They are often enriched with vitamins. It can also be made at home by combining ground almonds with water in a blender. Vanilla flavouring and sweeteners are often added. However, users should be cautious not to use bitter almonds, since the combination of bitter almonds and water releases cyanide.


Coconut milk is a sweet, milky white cooking base derived from the meat of a mature coconut. The colour and rich taste of the milk can be attributed to the high oil content and sugars.
In Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia coconut milk is called santan and in the Philippines it is called gata. In Thailand it is called ga-ti and used in many of the Thai curries. In Brazil, it is called leite de coco (literally, coconut milk). It should not be confused with coconut water (coconut juice), which is the naturally-occurring liquid found inside a coconut.


1. Goats milk
Some goats are bred for milk, which can be drunk raw, although some people recommend pasteurization to reduce bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. If the strong-smelling buck is not separated from the does, his scent will affect the milk. Goat's milk is commonly processed into cheese, goat butter, ice cream,and other products.
Goat's milk can replace sheep's milk or cow's milk in diets of those who are allergic. However, like cow's milk, goat's milk has lactose (sugar), and may cause gastrointestinal problems for individuals with lactose intolerance.
Goat's milk naturally has small fat globules, which means the cream remains suspended in the milk, instead of rising to the top, as in raw cow's milk; therefore, it does not need to be homogenized.

2. Camel’s milk

Camel milk is a staple food of desert nomad tribes and is richer in fat and protein than cow milk. It is said to have many healthful properties. It is used as a medicinal product and as an aphrodisiac in Ethiopia.
Bedouins believe that the curative powers of camel milk are enhanced if the camel's diet consists of certain plants. Camel milk can readily be made into yogurt, but can only be made into butter or cheese with difficulty. Butter or yogurt made from camel milk is said to have a very faint greenish tinge.
Camel milk cannot be made into butter by the traditional churning method. It can be made if it is soured first, churned, and a clarifying agent added, or if it is churned at 24–25 °C (75–77 °F), but times vary greatly in achieving results. Until recently, camel milk could not be made into cheese because rennet was unable to coagulate the milk proteins to allow the collection of curds. The cheese produced from this process has low levels of cholesterol and lactose. The sale of camel cheese is limited owing to the low yield of cheese from milk and the uncertainty of pasteurization levels for camel milk which makes adherence to dairy import regulations difficult.

1. Condensed milk
Condensed milk, also known as sweetened condensed milk, is cow's milk from which water has been removed and to which sugar has been added, yielding a very thick, sweet product which when canned can last for years without refrigeration if unopened. The two terms, condensed milk and sweetened condensed milk, have become synonymous; though there have been unsweetened condensed milk products, today these are uncommon. Condensed milk is used in numerous dessert dishes in many countries,

2. Powdered milk
Powdered milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content. Another purpose is to reduce its bulk for economy of transportation. Powdered milk and dairy products include such items as dry whole milk, non-fat dry milk, dry buttermilk, dry whey products and dry dairy blends.

3. Evaporated milk
Evaporated milk, also known as dehydrated milk, is a shelf-stable canned milk product with about 60% of the water removed from fresh milk. It differs from sweetened condensed milk, which contains added sugar. Sweetened condensed milk requires less processing since the added sugar inhibits bacterial growth.
The actual liquid portion of the product takes up half the space of fresh milk. When the non-liquid product is mixed with a proportionate amount of water, evaporated milk becomes the equivalent of fresh milk. This makes evaporated milk attractive for shipping purposes and can have a shelf life of months or even years, depending upon the brand. This made evaporated milk very popular before refrigeration as a safe and reliable substitute for perishable fresh milk that could be shipped easily to locations lacking the means of safe milk production or storage. Households in the western world use it most often today for desserts and baking due to its unique flavor. It is also used as a substitute for pouring cream, as an accompaniment to desserts, or (undiluted) as a rich substitute for milk.

Infant formula is a food manufactured to support adequate growth of infants under six months of age when fed as a sole source of nutrition]. The composition of infant formula is roughly based on a mother's milk at approximately one to three months postpartum. The most commonly used infant formulas contain purified cow's milk whey and casein as a protein source, a blend of vegetable oils as a fat source, lactose as a carbohydrate source, a vitamin-mineral mix, and other ingredients depending on the manufacturer. In addition, there are infant formulas using soya bean as a protein source in place of cow's milk (mostly in the United States and Great Britain) and formulas using protein reduced (hydrolyzed) into its component amino acids for infants who are allergic to other proteins. An upswing in breastfeeding has been accompanied by a deferment in the average age of introduction of other foods (such as cow's milk), resulting in increased use of both breastfeeding and infant formula between the ages of 3–12 months.

Baked is a variety of boiled milk that has been particularly popular in Russia and Ukraine. It is made by cooking boiled milk on low heat for eight hours or more.
In rural areas, baked milk has been produced by leaving a jug of boiled milk in an oven for a day or for a night until it is coated with a brown crust. The stove in a traditional Russian log house (izba) was designed so as to "sustain varying cooking temperatures based on the placement of the food inside the oven".
Nowadays baked milk is produced on an industrial scale, as is soured or fermented baked milk, traditionally known as ryazhenka. Like scalded milk it is free of bacteria and enzymes, and so can be stored safely at room temperature for up to forty hours. Home-made baked milk was (and still is) used for preparing a range of cakes, pies, and cookies.

Lactose intolerance:
Lactose, the disaccharide sugar component of all milk must be cleaved in the small intestine by the enzyme lactase in order for its constituents (galactose and glucose) to be absorbed. The production of this enzyme declines significantly after weaning in all mammals. Consequently, many humans become unable to properly digest lactose as they mature. There is a great deal of variance, with some individuals reacting badly to even small amounts of lactose, some able to consume moderate quantities, and some able to consume large quantities of milk and other dairy products without problems. When an individual consumes milk without producing sufficient lactase, they may suffer diarrhoea, intestinal gas, cramps and bloating, as the undigested lactose travels through the gastrointestinal tract and serves as nourishment for intestinal micro flora who excrete gas, a process known as anaerobic respiration.

Lactose intolerance is a natural process and there is no reliable way to prevent or reverse it. Lactase is readily available in pill form, and many individuals can use it to briefly increase their tolerance for dairy products.

Vernon Coelho
IHM Mumbai


  1. Hi Vernon Coelho,
    I really liked the scoop on coffee. I didn't know most of it and found it helpful and well written.
    I am an avid coffee addict and just can't start the day without my cup of Filter Coffee ;)
    You should know that Fresh and honest offers patented Swiss fresh milk coffee vending machines in India at only the installation cost for corporates. Owners now have the option to pay either per cup of filter coffee or buy coffee beans per KG. Their 24/7 free vending machine upkeep along with a 4 - 24 Hr service turn around time makes them one of the most preferred coffee vending machines provider in the country.

    Nice Penning
    Thanks Vernon Coelho.
    Marina Lobo

  2. I like the way you talk about this point. This was thought out and put together. A lots blogs talk about nothing exist on the net.

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