Thursday, October 29, 2009


1. Acid-—foods such as citrus juice, vinegar and wine that have a sour or sharp flavour (most foods are slightly acidic); acids have a pH of less than 7

2. A la—(ah lah) French for "in the manner or style of"; used in relation to is food, it designates a style of preparation or presentation

3. Aging (1) the period during which freshly killed meat is allowed to rest so that the effects of rigor mortis dissipate; (2) the period during which freshly milled flour is allowed to rest so that it will whiten

4. Albumen—-the principal protein found in egg whites

5. Al dente Italian for "to the teeth"; used to describe ceeked feeds (usually vegetables and pasta) that are prepared firm to the bite, not soft or mushy

6. Alkali also known as a base, any substance with a pH higher than 7; baking soda is one of the few alkaline foods

7. Allemande—(ah-leh—MAHND) a sauce made by adding lemon juice and a liaison to a veloute made from veal or chicken stock; used to make several small sauces of the veloute family

8. Allumette——(al-yoo-MEHT) (1) a matchstick cut of 1/8 inch x 1/8 inch X 2 inches (3 millimeters x 3 millimeters x 5 centimeters) usually used for potatoes; (2) a strip of puff pas- try with a sweet or savory filling

9. Appetizers——also known as first courses, usually small portions of hot or cold foods intended to whet the appetite in anticipation of the more substantial courses to follow

10. Au gratin — (oh GRAH—tan) foods with a browned or crusted top; often made by browning at food with a bread-crumb, cheese and/ or sauce topping under a broiler or salamander

11. All jus—(oh zhew) roasted meats, Poultry or game served with their natural, unthickened juices

12. Au Sec (oh Sek) Cooked until nearly dry

13. Bacteria-single-celled micro- organisms, some of which can cause diseases, including food—borne diseases

14. Bain marie (1) hot—water bath used to géntly cook food or keep cooked food hot (2)- container for holding food in a water bath

15. Baking——a dry—heat cooking method in which foods are sur- rounded by hot, dry air in a closed environment; similar to roasting, the term baking is usually applied to breads, pastries, vegetables and fish

16. Baking powder-a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and one or more acids, generally cream of tartar and/ or sodium aluminum sulfate, used to leaven baked goods; it re- leases carbon dioxide gas if moisture is present in a formula. Single- acting baking powder releases . carbon dioxide gas in the presence of moisture only; double-acting baking powder releases some carbon dioxide gas upon contact with moisture, and more gas is released when heat is applied.

17. Baking soda-sodium bicarbonate, an alkaline compound that releases carbon dioxide gas when combined with an acid and moisture; used to leaven baked goods

18. Barbecue (1) to cook foods over dry heat created by the burning of hardwood or hardwood charcoals, (2) a tangy tomato- or vinegar based sauce used for grilled foods, (3) foods cooked by this method and/ or with this sauce

19. Barding-—-tying thin slices of lat, such as bacon or pork fetlock, over meats or poultry that have little to no natural fat covering in order to protect and moisten them during roasting

20.Baste—-—-to moisten foods during cooking (usually grilling, broiling or roasting) with melted far, pan drip- pings, a sauce or other liquids to prevent drying and to add flavor

21. Batter-—(l) a semi liquid mixture containing flour or other starch used to make cakes and breads. The gluten development is minimized and the liquid forms the continuous medium in which other ingredients are disbursed; generally contains more fat, sugar and liquids than a dough; (2) a semi liquid mixture of liquid and starch used to coat foods for deep-frying.

22.Béarnaise— (bare—NAYZ) a sauce made of butter and egg yolks and flavored with a reduction of vinegar, shallots, tarragon and peppercorns

23.Béchamel—-(bay—shah-MELL) a leading sauce made by thickening milk with a white roux and adding seasonings

24.Beurre blanc—(burr BLANHK) French for "white butter"; an emulsfied butter sauce made from shallots, white wine and butter

25.Beurre manié—(burr man-YAY) a combination of equal amounts by weight of flour and soft, whole

26.Beurre noir- (burr NWAR) French for "black butter"; whole butter cooked until dark brown (not black); sometimes flavored with vinegar or lemon juice

27.Beurre noisette— (burr nwah- ZEHT) French for "brown butter"; whole butter heated until it turns light brown, giving off a nutty aroma

28.Beurre rouge- (burr ROOGE) French for "red butter"; an emulsified butter sauce made from shallots, red wine and butter

29.Bisque—(bisk) a soup made from shellfish; classic versions are thickened with rice

30.Bivalves— molluscs such as clams, oysters and mussels that have two bilateral shells attached at a central hinge

31. Boiling-—a moist—heat cooking method that uses convection to transfer heat from a hot (approximately 212°F/ 100 C) liquid to the food submerged in it; the turbulent waters and higher temperatures cook foods more quickly than do poaching or simmering

32.Bouchées—(boo-SHAY) small puff pastry shells that can he filled and served as bite-size hors doeuvre or petit fours

33.Blanching very briefly and partially cooking a food in boiling water or hot fat; used to assist preparation (for example, to loosen peels from vegetables), as part of a combination cooking method, to remove undesirable flavors or to prepare a food for freezing

34.Blanquette— (blahn—KEHT) a white stew made of a white sauce and meat or poultry that is simmered without first browning

35.Blending-a mixing method in which two or more ingredients are combined just until they are evenly distributed

36.Bouquet garni—-(boo-KAY gar- NEE) fresh herbs and vegetables tied into a bundle with twine and used to flavor stocks, sauces, soups and stews

37.Bouquetiere—(boo—kuh-TY EHR) a garnish (bouquet) of carefully cut and arranged fresh vegetables

38.Braising— a combination cooking method in which foods are first browned in hot fat, then covered and slowly cooked in a small amount of liquid over low heat; braising uses a combination of simmering and steaming to transfer heat from the liquid (conduction) and the air (convection) to the foods

39.Bran—the tough outer layer of a cereal grain and the part highest in fiber

40.Breading-—(l) a coating of bread or cracker crumbs, cornmeal or other dry meal applied to foods that will typically be deep—fried or pan- fried; (2) the process of applying this coating

41. Brigade——a system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is as- signed a set of specific tasks; these tasks are often related by cooking method, equipment or the types of foods being produced

42.Broche—(bree—OHSH) a rich yeast bread containing large amounts of eggs and butter

43.Broiling—a dry—heat cooking method in which foods are cooked by heat radiating from an overhead source

44.Broth-a flavourful liquid obtained from the long simmering of meats and/ or vegetables

45.Brown stew--u stew in which the meat is first browned in hot fat

46.Brown stock-—··-a richly coloured stock made of chicken, veal, beef or game bones and vegetables. All of which are caramelized before they are simmered in water with seasonings

47.Brunch--a late-morning to early- afternoon meal that takes the place of both breakfast and lunch; it brunch menu often offers breakfast foods as well as almost anything else

48.Brunoise; foods garnished with vegetables cut in manner

49.Cake - in American usage, refers to a broad range of pastries, including layer cakes, coffeecakes and gateaux; can refer to almost any— thing that is baked, tender, sweet and sometimes frosted

50.Calorie the unit of energy measured by the amount of heat required to raise 1000 grams of water one degree Celsius; it is also written as kilocalorie or kcal and is used as a measure of food energy

51. Canapé——(KAN—ah—pay) a tiny open—faced sandwich served as an hors d’oeuvre; usually composed of a small piece of bread or toast topped with a savory spread and garnish

52.Capon——-(kay—pahn) the class of surgically castrated male chickens; they have well-flavored meat and soft, smooth skin

53.Capsaicin—(kap-SAY-ee-zin) an alkaloid found in a chile pepper’s placental ribs that provides the pepper’s heat

54.Carbohydrates—a group of compounds composed of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon that supply the body with energy (4 calories per gram); carbohydrates are classified as simple (including certain sugars) and complex (including starches and fiber)

55.Carotenoid—a naturally occurring pigment that predominates in red and yellow vegetables such as carrots and red peppers

56.Carryover cooking—the cooking that occurs after a food is removed from a heat source; it is accomplished by the residual heat remaining in the food

57.Cartilage—also known as gristle, a tough, elastic, whitish connective tissue that helps give structure to an animal’s body

58.Casserole——(1) a heavy dish, usually ceramic, for baking foods; (2) foods baked in a casserole dish

59.Cellulose—a complex carbohydrate found in the cell wall of plants; it is edible but indigestible by humans

60.Cephalopods——mollusks with a single, thin internal shell called a pen or cuttlebone, well-developed eyes, a number of arms that attach to the head and a saclike fin—bearing mantle; include squid and octopus

61. Chalazae cords--thick, twisted strands of egg white that anchor the yolk in place

62.Chef de cuisine-(chef duh quizine) also known simply as chef; the person responsible for all kitchen operations, developing menu items and setting the kitchen’s tone and tempo

63.Chef de partie - (chef duh par-tee) also known as station chef; produces the menu items under the direct supervision of the chef or sous-chef.

64.Chiffonade - ( chef-fon-nahd) ( 1 ) to finely slice or shred leafy vegetables or herbs; (2) the finely cut leafy vegetables or herbs often used a garnish or bedding

65.China cap - a cone-shaped strainer made ef perforated metal

66.Chinois-—(sheen—WAH) a conical strainer made of fine mesh, used for straining and puréeing foods

67.Chlorophyll—a naturally occurring pigment that predeminates in green vegetables such as cabbage

68.Cholesterol—a fatty substance found in foods derived from animal products and in the human body; it has been linked to heart disease

69.Chop—(1) a cut of meat, including part of the rib; (2) to cut an item into small pieces where uniformity of size and shape is neither feasible nor necessary

70.Clarification—(1) the process of transforming a broth into a clear consomme by trapping impurities with a clearmeat consisting of the egg white protein albumen, ground meat, an acidic product, mirepoix and other ingredients; (2) the clearmeat used to clarify a broth

71. Colander—a perforated bowl, with or without a base or legs, used to strain foods

72.Collagen—a protein found in nearly all connective tissue; it dissolves when cooked with moisture

73.Concassée—(kon-kaas-SAY) peeled, seeded and diced tomato

74.Connective tissues—tissue found throughout an animal’s body that binds together and supports other tissues such as muscles

75.Consommé—(kwang-soh—MAY) a rich stock or broth that has been clarified with clearmeat to remove impurities

76.Convection—the transfer of heat caused by the natural movement of molecules in a fluid (whether air water or fat) from a warmer area) to a cooler one; mechanical convection is the movement of molecules caused by stirring

77.Cookies—small, sweet, flat pastries, usually classified by preparation or makeup techniques as drop, icebox, bar, cutout, pressed and Wafer

78.Coring—-the process of removing the seeds or pit from a fruit or fruit- vegetable

79.Coulis—(koo-lee) a sauce made from a puree of vegetables and/or fruit; may be served hot or cold

80.Court bouillon-—(kort boo—yon) water simmered with vegetables, seasonings and an acidic product such as vinegar or wine; used for simmering or poaching fish, shell-fish or vegetables

81. Creaming—a mixing method in which softened fat and sugar are vigorously combined to incorporate air

82.Cream soup--a soup made from vegetables cooked in a liquid that is thickened with a starch and puréed; cream is then incorporated to add richness and flavor

83.Creme anglaise-——(khrem ahn— GLEHZ) also known as creme a l'anglaise

84.Creme caramel (khrem kair—ah- MEHL) like creme renversee (rehn— vehr—SAY) and flan, a custard baked over a layer of caramelized sugar and inverted for service

85.Creme Chantilly——(khrem shan— TEE) heavy cream whipped to soft peaks and flavored with sugar and vanilla; used to garnish pastries or desserts or folded into cooled cus- tard or pastry cream for fillings

86.Creme Chiboust——-(khrem chee- BOOS) a pastry cream lightened by folding in Italian meringue

87.Creme patissiere-—(kharem pah— tees-SYEHR) see Pastry cream

88.Crépe-—(krayp) a 'thin, delicate unleavened griddlecake made with a very thin egg batter cooked in a very hot saute pan; used in sweet and savory preparations

89.Critical control point—under the HACCP system, any step during the processing of a food when a mistake can result in the transmission, growth or survival of pathogenic bacteria

90.Croissant—(krwah—SAHN) a crescent-shaped roll made from a rich, rolled—in yeast dough

91. Croquctte——(crow—keht) a food that has been pureed or bound with a thick sauce (usually bechamel or velouté), made into small shapes and then breaded and deep—fried

92.Cross-contamination - the transfer of bacteria or other contaminants from one food, work surface or piece of equipment to another

93.Crouton - (KROO-twan) a bread or pastry garnish, usually toasted or sauteed until crisp.

94.Crustaceans—sllefish characterized by a hard outer skeleton or shell and jointed appendages; include lobsters, crabs and shrimp

95.Curdling - the Separation of milk or egg mixtures into solid and liquid components; caused by overcooking, high heat or the presence of acids

96.Custard—any liquid thickened by the coagulation of egg proteins; its consistency depends on the ratio of éggs to liquid and the type of liquid used; custards can be baked in the oven or cooked in a bain marie or on the stove top

97.Cutlet - a relatively thick, boneless slice of meat.

98.Deglaze - to swirl or stir liquid (usually wine or stock) in a saute pan or other pan to dissolve cooked food particles remaining on the bottom; resulting mixtures often become the base for a sauce

99.Degrease - to skin the fat from the top of a liquid such as a sauce or a stock

100. Demi-glace - (deh-me glass) French for "half -glaze"; a mixture of half brown stock and half brown sauce reduced by half

101. Dice-—-( 1 ) to cut foods into cubes: 1/4 inch (6 millimeters) for small, 1/2 inch (1.2 centimeters) for medium and ·3/4 inch (2 centimeters) for large; (2) the cubes of cut food.

102. Docking——pricking small holes in an unbaked dough or crust to allow steam to escape and to prevent the dough from rising when baked

103. Dough—a mixture of flour and other ingredients used in baking; has a low moisture content, and gluten forms the continuous medium into which other ingredi- ents are embedded; it is often stiff enough to cut into shapes

104. Drawn—a market form for fish in which the viscera is removed

105. Dredging—coating a food with flour or finely ground crumbs; usually done prior to sauteing or frying or as the first step of the standardized breading procedure

106. Dumpling-—any of a variety of small starchy products made from doughs or batters that are simmered or steamed; can be plain or filled

107. Durum wheat - a species of very hard wheat with a particularly high amount of protein; it is used to make couscous or milled into Semolina, which is used for making pasta

108. Choux paste— also known as pate a choux; a soft dough that produces hollow baked products with crisp exteriors; used for making éclairs, cream puffs and savory products

109. Egg wash—a mixture of beaten eggs (whole eggs. yolks or whites) and a liquid. usually milk or water. used to coat doughs before baking to add sheen

110. Elastin—a protein found in connective tissues, particularly ligaments and tendons

111. Endosperm-—-the largest part of a cereal grain amd a source of protein and carbohydrates (starch) the part used primarily in milled products

112. Espagnole - (ess-spah-nyol) known as brown sauce, a leading sauce made of brown stock, mirepoix and tomatoes thickened with brown roux; often used to produce demi-glace

113. Feuillete—(fuh-YET) square, rec- tangular or diamond-shaped puff pastry boxes; may be filled with a sweet or savory mixture

114. Fiber — also known as dietary fiber; indigestible carhohydrates found in grains, fruits and vegetables; fiber aids digestion

115. Filet, fillet — (fee-lay) (1) filet; a boneless tenderloin of meat; (2.) fillet: the side of u Fish removed intact. boneless or semiboneless, with or without skin; ( 3) to cut such a piece

116. Fish velouté-—;a velouté sauce made from fish stock

117. Flambé—— food served flaming; produced by igniting brandy, rum or other liquor

118. Flour - a powdery substance of varying degrees of fineness made by milling grains such as wheat ,corn or rye

119. Flavonoid - a naturally occouring pigment that predominates an red, purple & White vegetables like cauliflower, beets.

120. Freezer burn - the surface dehydration and discoloration of food that results from moisture loss at below freezing temperatures

121. Frenching - a method of trimming racks or individual chops of meat, especially lamb, in which the excess fat is cut away leaving the eye muscle intact; all meat and connective tissue are removed from the rib bone

122. Fricassee - (FRIHK-uh-see) a white stew in which the meat is cooked in fat without browning before the liquid is added

123. Frittata - (free-tah-ta) an open faced omelet of Spanish-Italian heritage

124. Frying - a dry-heat cooking method in which foods are cooked an hot fat; includes sauteing and stir-frying, pan-frying and deep-frying

125. Fungi - a large group of plants ranging from single celled organism to gaint mushrooms; the most common are molds and yeasts

126. Game - birds and animals hunted for sport or food; many game birds and aninmls are now ranch-raised and commercially available

127. Garde-manger - (gar mawn-zhay) (1) also known as the pantry chef the cook in charge of cold food production, including salads and salad dressings, charcuterie items, cold appetizers and buffet items; (2.) the work area where these foods are prepared

128. Garnish·—(1) food used as an attractive decoration; (2) a subsidiary food used to add flavor or character to the main ingredient in a dish (for example, noodles in chicken noodle soup)

129. Gateau—( gah—toe) ( 1) in American usage, refers to any cake-type dessert; (2) in French usage, refers to various pastry items made with puff pastry, éclair paste, short dough or sweet dough

130. Gelatin—a Flavorless, odorless and brittle mixture of proteins (espe- cially collagen) extracted from boil- ing bones, connective tissue and other animal parts; when dissolved in a hot liquid and then cooled, it forms a jellylike substance used as a thickener and stabilizer

131. Gelato - (jah-laht-to) an Italian-style ice cream that is denser than American-style ice cream.

132. Genoise - (zhen-waahz) (1) a form of whipped-egg cake that uses whole eggs whipped with sugar; (2) a French spongecake

133. Giblets - the collective term for edible poultry viscera, including gizzards, hearts, livers and necks.

134. Gizzard - a birds's second stomach

135. Glace de viande - (glahss duh veeawnd) a dark, syrupy meat glaze made by reducing a brown stock.

136. Glaze - (1) any shiny coating applied to food or created by browning; (2) the dramatic reduction and concentration of a stock; (3) a thin, flavoured coating poured od dripped pnto a cake or pastry.

137. Gluten - an elastic network of proteins created when wheat flour is moistened and manipulated; it gives structure and strength to the baked goods and is respoinsible for their volume, texture, appearance. the proteins necessary for gluten formation are glutenin and gliaden.

138. Grate - to cut a food into small, thin shreds by rubbing it against a serrated metal plate known as a grater

139. Green meats - freshly slaughtered meats that have not had sufficient time to age and develop tenderness and flavor

140. Grilling — a dry -heat cooking method in which foods are cooked by heat radiating from a source located below the cooking surface; the heat can be generated by electricity or by burning gas, hardwood or hardwood charcoals

141. Halal - describes food prepared in accordance with Muslim dietary laws

142. Hanging - the practice of allowing eviscerated (Drawn or gutted) game to age in at dry, well-ventilzlted place; hanging helps tenderize the flesh and strengthen its flavor

143. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) - it rigorous system of self—inspection used to manage und maintain sanitary conditions in all types of food service operations; it focuses on the flow of food through the food service facility to identify any point or step in preparation (known as a critical control point) where some action must be taken to prevent or minimize a risk or hazard

144. Herb - any of a large group of aromatic plants whose leaves, stems or flowers are used as a flavoring; used either dried or fresh

145. Hollandaise - (ohll-uhn-daze) an emulsified sauce made of butter, egg yolk and flavorings (especially lemon juice)

146. Hors d'oeuvre - (ohr durv) very small portions of hot or cold foods served before the meals to stimulate the appetite

147. Induction cooking — a cooking method that uses a special coil placed below the stove tops surface in combination with specially designed cookware to generate heat rapidly with an alternating magnetic field

148. IQF (individually quick-frozen)- describes the technique of rapidly freezing each individual item of food such as slices of fruit, berries or pieces of fish before packaging; IQF foods are not packaged with syrup or sauce

149. Irradiation-——-a preservation method used for certain fruits, vegetables, grains, spices, meat and poultry in which ionizing radiation sterilizes the food, slows ripening and prevents sprouting

150. Jam - a fruit gel made from fruit Pulp and sugar

151. Jelly - a fruit gel made from fruit juice and sugar

152. Julienne — (ju-lee-en) (1) to cut foods into stick-shaped pieces, approximately 1/8 inch X 1/8 inch X 2 inches (3 millimeters X 3 millimeters X 5 centimeters); a fine julienne has dimensions of 1/16 inch X 1/16 inch X 2 inches (1.5 millimeters X 1.5 millimeters >< style="mso-spacerun:yes">

153. jus lié—-(zhoo lee - ay) also known as fond lie; a sauce made by thickening brown stock with cornstarch or similar starch; often used like a demi—glace, especially to produce Small sauces

154. Kneading - working a dough to develop gluten

155. Kosher — describes food prepared in accordance with Jewish dietary laws

156. Lard — the rendered fat of hogs

157. Larding — inserting thin slices of fat, such as pork fat back, into lowfat meats in order to add moisture

158. Lardon — Diced, blanched, fried bacon

159. Leavener - an ingredient or process that produces or incorporates gases in a baked product in order to incresae volume, provide structure and give texture.

160. Liaison - (lee-yeh-zon) a mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream used to thicken and enrich sauces

161. Macerate - to soak foods in a liquid, usually alcoholic, to soften them

162. Mandoline - a stainless steel, hand-operated slicing device with adjustable blades

163. Marbling—-whitish streaks of inter- and intramuscular fat

164. Marinade—the liquid used to mar- inate foods; it generally contains herbs, spices and other llavoring ingredients as well as an acidic product such as wine, vinegar or lemon juice

165. Marinate - to soak a food in a seasoned liquid in order to tenderize the food and add flavor to it

166. Marmalade - a citrus jelly that also contains unpeeled slice of citrus fruit

167. Marzipan - (Mahr-sih-pan) a paste of ground almonds, sugar and egg whites used to fill and decorate pastries

168. Matignon - a standard mirepoix plus diced smoked ham and, depending on the dish, mushrooms and herbs; some-times called an edible mirepoix, it is usually cut more uniformly than a standard mirepiox and left in a finished dish as a garnish

169. Mayonnaise - a thick, creamy sauce consisting of oil and vinegar emulsified with egg yolks, usually used as a salad dressing

170. Mealy potatoes - also known as starchy potatoes; those with a starch content and thick skin; thay are best for baking

171. Meringue - (muh-reng) a foam made of beaten egg whites and sugar

172. Mirepobix - (meer-pwa) a mixture of coarsely chopped onions, carrots and celery used to flavour stocks, stews and other foods; generally, a mixture of 50 percent onions, 25 percent carrots and 25 percent celery, by weight, is used.

173. Mollusks - shellfish characterized by a soft, unsegmented body, no internal skeleton and a hard outer shell.

174. Mortar and pestle - a hard bowl (the mortar) in which foods such as spices are ground or pounded into a powder with a club-shaped tool.

175. Mushrooms - members of a broad category of plants known as fungi; they are often used and served like vegetables.

176. Nectar-—-the diluted, sweetened juice of peaches, apricots, guavas, black currants or other fruits, the juice of which would be too thick or too tart to drink straight

177. Noisette — (nwah-zet) (1) a small,usually round, portion of meat cut from the rib or loin ; (2) French for "hazelnut"


179. Noodles — flat strips of pasta—type made with eggs; may be fresh or dried

180. Nut - (1) the edible single-seed kernel of a fruit surrounded by a hard shell; (2) generally, any seed or fruit with an edible kernel in a hard shell

181. Offal——-(OFF—uhl) also called variety meats; edible entrails (for example, the heart, kidneys, liver, sweet- breads and tongue) and extremities (for example, oxtail and pig’s feet) of an animal

182. Organic farming-——a method of farming that does not rely on synthetic pesticides, fungicides, herbicides or fertilizers


184. Oven spring—the rapid rise of yeast goods in a hot oven, resulting from the production and expansion of trapped gases


186. Overrun-—the amount of air into an ice cream

187. Pan-broiling - a dry heat cooking method that uses conduction to transfer heat to a food resting directly on a cooking surface; no fat is used and the food remains uncovered

188. Pan-frying — a dry-heat cooking method in which food is placed in a moderate amount of hot fat


190. Pan gravy-—a sauce made by deglazing pan drippings from roast meat or poultry and combining them with a roux or other starch and stock

191. Papillote, en - (awn pa-pee-yote) a cooking method in which food is wrapped in paper or foil and then heated so that the food steams in its own moisture

192. Parboiling — partially cooking a food in a boiling or simmering

193. Relish - a cooked or pickled sauce usually made with vegetables or fruits and often used as a condiment

194. Parchment (paper) - heat - resistant paper used throughout the kitchen for tasks such as lining baking pans, wrapping foods to be cooked en papillote and covering foods during shallow poaching

195. Parcooking - partially cooking a food by any cooking method

196. Paring knife - a short knife used for detail work, especially cutting fruits and vegetables; it has a rigid blade approximately 2-4 inches (5--10 centimeters) long

197. Parisienne; Parisian — (1) the smaller scoop on a two—scoop melon ball cutter; (2) small spheres of fruit or vegetables cut with a tiny melon ball cutter

198. Pasta-(1) an unleavened paste or dough made from wheat flour (often semolina), vvater and eggs; the dough can be colored and flavored vvith a wide variety of herbs, spices or other ingredients and cut or extruded into a vvide variety of shapes and sizes; it can be fresh or dried and is boiled for service; (2) general term for any macaroni product or egg noodle

199. Pasteurization-—-the process of heating something to a prescribed temperature for a specific period in order to destroy pathogenic bacteria

200. Pastry cream — also known as creme patissiere, a stirred custard made with egg yolks, sugar and milk and thickened with starch; used for pastry and pie fillings

201. Paysanne — (pahy—sahn ) foods cut into flat square, round or triangular items with dimensions of 1/2 inch X 1/2 inch X 1/8 inch (1.2 centimeters X 1.2 centimeters X 3 millimeters)

202. Pathogen - any organism that causes diseases; usually refers to bacteria

203. Pectin — A gelatin like carbohydrate obtained from certain fruits; used to thicken jams and jellies

204. Pilaf - a cooking method for grains which the grains are lightly sautéed in hot fat and then a hot liquid is added; the mixture is simmered without stirring until the liquid is absorbed

205. Poaching — a moist-heat cooking, method that uses convection to transfer heat from a hot (approximately 160°F-—180°F [71°C—82°C] liquid to the food submerged in it

206. Profiterole—(pro-feet-uh-roll) small round pastry made from eclair paste filled with a savory filling and served as an hors d’oeuvre or filled with ice cream topped with sauce and served as a dessert

207. Proofing - the rise given shaped yeast products just proir to baking

208. Pate feuilletée—(paht fuh—yuh-tay) also known as puff pastry; a rolled- in dough used for pastries, cookies and savory products; it produces a rich and buttery but not sweet baked product with hundreds of light, flaky layers

209. Quenelle — (kuh—nehl) a small, dumpling-shaped portion of a rnousseline forcemeat poached in an appropriately flavored stock; it is shaped by using two spoons

210. Quiche—-a savory tart or pie consisting of a custard baked in a pastry shell with a variety of flavorings and garnishes

211. Raft - a crust formed during the process of clarifing consomme; it is composed of the clearmeat and impurities from the stock, which rise to the top of the simmering stock and release additional flavors

212. Ragout - (rah-goo) (1) traditionally, a well-—seasoned, rich stew containing meat, vegetable and wine; (2) any stewed mixture.

213. Reduction -- cooking a liquid such as a sauce until its quantity decreases through evaporation; typically done to concentrate flavors and thicken liquids

214. Relish—-a cooked or pickled sauce usually made with vegetables or fruits and often used as a condiment

215. Remouillage-—-( rhur—moo—yahj) French for "rewetting"; a stock produced by reusing the bones left from making another stock


217. Render - (1) to melt and clarify fat; cook meats in order to remove the fat

218. Risotto — (re-zot-toe) (1) a cooking method for grains in which the grains are lightly sauteed in butter and then a liquid is gradually added; the mixture is simmered with near-constant stirring until the still-firm grains merge with the cooking liquid; (2) a Northern Italian rice dish prepared this way

219. Roasting - a dry heat cooking method that heats food by surrounding it with hot, dry air in a closed environment or on a spit over an open fire; similar to baking, the term roasting is usually applied to meats, poultry, game and vegetables


221. Roe - (roh ) fish eggs

222. Rondeau — (ron—doe) a shallow, wide, straight-sided pot with two loop handles

223. Rotisserie - cooking equipment taht slowely rotates meat or other foods in front of a heating element

224. Roux - (roo) a cooked mixture of equal parts flour and fat by weight, used as a thickener for sauces and other dishes; cooking the flour in fat coats the starch granules with the fat and prevents them from lumping together or forming lumps when introduced into a liquid

225. Royal Icing — also known as decorators icing, an uncooked mixture of confectionefs sugar and egg whites that becomes hard and brittle when dry; used for making intricate cake decorations

226. Sabayon - (sa-by-on) also known as zabaglione; a formy, stirred custard sauce made by whisking eggs, sugar and wine over low heat

227. Salamander - a small broiler used primarily for browning or glazing the tops of foods

228. Salad dressing - a sauce for a salad; most are based on a vinaigrette, mayonnaise or other emulsified product

229. Salsa — (sahl-sah) Spanish for "sauce”; (1) generally, a cold chunky mixture of fresh herbs, spices, fruits and/or vegetables used as a sauce for meat, poultry, fish or shellfish; (2) in Italian usage, a general term for pasta sauces

230. Salt-curing — the process of surrounding a food with salt or a mixture of salt, sugar, nitrite-based curing salt, herbs and spices, salt-curing dehydrates the food, inhibits bacterial growth and adds flavor

231. Sashimi — (sah—shee—mee) raw fish eaten without rice; usually served as the first course of a japanese meal

232. Sausage -- a seasoned forcemeat usually stuffed into a casing; a sausage can be fresh, smoked and cooked, dried or hard

233. Semifreddi — (seh-mee-frayd—dee) also known as still-frozen desserts; items made with frozen mousse, custard or cream into which large amounts of whipped cream or meringue are folded in order to incorporate air; layers of spongecake and / or fruits may be added for flavor and texture; include frozen soufflés, marquise, mousses and Neapolitans

234. Shortening — (1) a white, flavorless, solid fat formulated for baking or deep-frying; (2) any fat used in baking to tenderize the product by shortening gluten strands

235. Shallow poaching - a moist heat cooking method that combines poaching and steaming; the food (usually fish) is placed on a vegetable bed and partially covered with a liquid (cuisson) and simmered

236. Simmering — (1) a moist-heat Cooking method that uses convection to transfer heat from a hot (approximately 185 F-205 °F {85°C—96°C}) liquid to the food submerged in it; (2) maintaining the temperature of a liquid just below the boiling point

237. Slurry — a mixture of raw starch and cold liquid used for thickening

238. Smoke point - the temperature at which a fat begins to break down and smoke

239. Soufflé-—( soo-flay) either a sweet or savory fluffy dish made with a custard base lightened with whipped egg whites and then baked; the whipped egg whites cause the dish to puff when baked

240. Sous-chef — (soo-shef) a cook who supervises food production and vvho reports to the executive chef; he or she is second in command of a kitchen

241. Specifications - Standard requirements to be followed in procuring items from suppliers

242. Spice - any of a group of strongly flavoured or aromatic portions of plants (other than leaves) used as flavorings, condiments or aromatics

243. Station Chef - the cook in charge of a particular department in a kitchen

244. Steak - (1) a cross-section slice of a round fish with a small section of the bone attached; (2) a cut of meat, either with or without the bone.

245. Stock--(French fond) a clear, unthickened liquid flavored by soluble substances extracted from meat, poultry or fish and their bones as well as from a mirepoix, other vegetables and seasonings

246. Supréme——(su-prem) (1) a sauce made by adding cream to a velouté made from chicken stock; it is used to make several compound sauces

247. Sushi - (szu-she) cooked or raw fish or shellfish rolled in or served on seasoned rice

248. Sweat — to cook a food (typically vegetables) in a small amount of fat, usually covered, over low heat without browning until the food softens and releases moisture; sweating allows the food to release its flavor more quickly when cooked with other foods

249. Sweat — to cook a food (typically vegetables) in a small amount of fat, usually covered, over low heat without browning until the food softens and releases moisture; sweating allows the food to release its flavor more quickly when cooked with other foods

250. Sweetbreads - the thymus glands of a calf or lamb

251. Terrine — (teh—reen) (1) traditionally, a loaf of coarse forcemeat cooked in a covered earthenware mold and without a crust, today, the word is used interchangeably with paté, (2) the mold used to cook such items, usually a rectangle or oval shape and made of ceramic

252. Tart-—-a sweet or savory filling in a baked crust made in a shallow, Straight-sided pan without a top Crust

253. Thickening agents - ingredients used to thicken sauces; include starches (flour, cornstarch and arrowroot), gelatin and liaisons

254. Tossed Salad - a salad prepared by placing the greens, garnishes and salad dressing in a large bowl and tossing to combine

255. Vinaigrette - (vin-nay-greht) a tempeorary emulsion of oil and vinegar (usually three part oil to one part vinegar) seasoned with herbs, salt and pepper; used as a salad dressing or sauce

256. Vol-au-vents - (Vul-oh-vanz) deep, individual portion-sized puff pastry shells; often filled with a savory mixture and served as an appetizer or a main course

257. White Stock - a light-coloured stock made from chicken, veal, beef or fish bones simmered in water with vegetables and seasonings

258. Whipping - a mixture method in which foods are vigrously beaten in order to incorporate air, a whisk or an electric mixer with its whip attachment is used

259. Yeasts - microscopic fungi whose metabolic processes are responsible for fermentation; thay are used for leavening bread and in cheese, beer and wine making

260. Zest - the thin, colored part of a citrus peel

261. Zushi - (zhoo-she) the seasoned rice used for sushi

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