Tuesday, September 29, 2009

new fp notes!!


1. Acid-—foods such as citrus juice, vinegar and wine that have a sour or sharp flavour (most foods are slightly acidic); acids have a pH of less than 7

2. ‘A la—(ah lah) French for "in the manner or style of"; used in relation to is food, it designates a style of preparation or presentation

3. Aging (1) the period during which freshly killed meat is allowed to rest so that the effects of rigor mortis dissipate; (2) the period during which freshly milled flour is allowed to rest so that it will whiten

4. Albumen—-the principal protein found in egg whites

5. Al dente Italian for "to the teeth"; used to describe ceeked feeds (usually vegetables and pasta) that are prepared firm to the bite, not soft or mushy

6. Alkali also known as a base, any substance with a pH higher than 7; baking soda is one of the few alkaline foods

7. Allemande—(ah-leh—MAHND) a sauce made by adding lemon juice and a liaison to a veloute made from veal or chicken stock; used to make several small sauces of the veloute family

8. Allumette——(al-yoo-MEHT) (1) a matchstick cut of 1/8 inch x 1/8 inch X 2 inches (3 millimeters x 3 millimeters x 5 centimeters) usually used for potatoes; (2) a strip of puff pas- try with a sweet or savory filling

9. Appetizers——also known as first courses, usually small portions of hot or cold foods intended to whet the appetite in anticipation of the more substantial courses to follow

10. Au gratin — (oh GRAH—tan) foods with a browned or crusted top; often made by browning at food with a bread-crumb, cheese and/ or sauce topping under a broiler or salamander

11. All jus—(oh zhew) roasted meats, Poultry or game served with their natural, unthickened juices

12. Au Sec (oh Sek) Cooked until nearly dry

13. Bacteria-single-celled micro- organisms, some of which can cause diseases, including food—borne diseases

14. Bain marie (1) hot—water bath used to géntly cook food or keep cooked food hot (2)- container for holding food in a water bath

15. Baking——a dry—heat cooking method in which foods are sur- rounded by hot, dry air in a closed environment; similar to roasting, the term baking is usually applied to breads, pastries, vegetables and fish

16. Baking powder-a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and one or more acids, generally cream of tartar and/ or sodium aluminum sulfate, used to leaven baked goods; it re- leases carbon dioxide gas if moisture is present in a formula. Single- acting baking powder releases . carbon dioxide gas in the presence of moisture only; double-acting baking powder releases some carbon dioxide gas upon contact with moisture, and more gas is released when heat is applied.

17. Baking soda-sodium bicarbonate, an alkaline compound that releases carbon dioxide gas when combined with an acid and moisture; used to leaven baked goods

18. Barbecue (1) to cook foods over dry heat created by the burning of hardwood or hardwood charcoals, (2) a tangy tomato- or vinegar based sauce used for grilled foods, (3) foods cooked by this method and/ or with this sauce

19. Barding-—-tying thin slices of lat, such as bacon or pork fetlock, over meats or poultry that have little to no natural fat covering in order to protect and moisten them during roasting

20. Baste—-—-to moisten foods during cooking (usually grilling, broiling or roasting) with melted far, pan drip- pings, a sauce or other liquids to prevent drying and to add flavor

21. Batter-—(l) a semi liquid mixture containing flour or other starch used to make cakes and breads. The gluten development is minimized and the liquid forms the continuous medium in which other ingredients are disbursed; generally contains more fat, sugar and liquids than a dough; (2) a semi liquid mixture of liquid and starch used to coat foods for deep-frying.

22. Béarnaise— (bare—NAYZ) a sauce made of butter and egg yolks and flavored with a reduction of vinegar, shallots, tarragon and peppercorns

23. Béchamel—-(bay—shah-MELL) a leading sauce made by thickening milk with a white roux and adding seasonings

24. Beurre blanc—(burr BLANHK) French for "white butter"; an emulsfied butter sauce made from shallots, white wine and butter

25. Beurre manié—(burr man-YAY) a combination of equal amounts by weight of flour and soft, whole

26. Beurre noir- (burr NWAR) French for "black butter"; whole butter cooked until dark brown (not black); sometimes flavored with vinegar or lemon juice

27. Beurre noisette— (burr nwah- ZEHT) French for "brown butter"; whole butter heated until it turns light brown, giving off a nutty aroma

28. Beurre rouge- (burr ROOGE) French for "red butter"; an emulsified butter sauce made from shallots, red wine and butter

29. Bisque—(bisk) a soup made from shellfish; classic versions are thickened with rice

30. Bivalves— molluscs such as clams, oysters and mussels that have two bilateral shells attached at a central hinge

31. Boiling-—a moist—heat cooking method that uses convection to transfer heat from a hot (approximately 212°F/ 100 C) liquid to the food submerged in it; the turbulent waters and higher temperatures cook foods more quickly than do poaching or simmering

32. Bouchées—(boo-SHAY) small puff pastry shells that can he filled and served as bite-size hors doeuvre or petit fours

33. Blanching very briefly and partially cooking a food in boiling water or hot fat; used to assist preparation (for example, to loosen peels from vegetables), as part of a combination cooking method, to remove undesirable flavors or to prepare a food for freezing

34. Blanquette— (blahn—KEHT) a white stew made of a white sauce and meat or poultry that is simmered without first browning

35. Blending-a mixing method in which two or more ingredients are combined just until they are evenly distributed

36. Bouquet garni—-(boo-KAY gar- NEE) fresh herbs and vegetables tied into a bundle with twine and used to flavor stocks, sauces, soups and stews

37. Bouquetiere—(boo—kuh-TY EHR) a garnish (bouquet) of carefully cut and arranged fresh vegetables

38. Braising— a combination cooking method in which foods are first browned in hot fat, then covered and slowly cooked in a small amount of liquid over low heat; braising uses a combination of simmering and steaming to transfer heat from the liquid (conduction) and the air (convection) to the foods

39. Bran—the tough outer layer of a cereal grain and the part highest in fiber

40. Breading-—(l) a coating of bread or cracker crumbs, cornmeal or other dry meal applied to foods that will typically be deep—fried or pan- fried; (2) the process of applying this coating

41. Brigade——a system of staffing a kitchen so that each worker is as- signed a set of specific tasks; these tasks are often related by cooking method, equipment or the types of foods being produced

42. Brioche—(bree—OHSH) a rich yeast bread containing large amounts of eggs and butter

43. Broiling—a dry—heat cooking method in which foods are cooked by heat radiating from an overhead source

44. Broth-a flavourful liquid obtained from the long simmering of meats and/ or vegetables

45. Brown stew--u stew in which the meat is first browned in hot fat

46. Brown stock-—··-a richly coloured stock made of chicken, veal, beef or game bones and vegetables. All of which are caramelized before they are simmered in water with seasonings

47. Brunch--a late-morning to early- afternoon meal that takes the place of both breakfast and lunch; it brunch menu often offers breakfast foods as well as almost anything else

48. Brunoise; foods garnished with vegetables cut in manner

49. Cake - in American usage, refers to a broad range of pastries, including layer cakes, coffeecakes and gateaux; can refer to almost any— thing that is baked, tender, sweet and sometimes frosted

50. Calorie the unit of energy measured by the amount of heat required to raise 1000 grams of water one degree Celsius; it is also written as kilocalorie or kcal and is used as a measure of food energy


Kitchen Equipment

Having the proper tools and equipment for a particular task may mean the difference between a job well done and one done carelessly, incorrectly or even dangerously. This chapter introduces most of the tools and equipment typically used in a professional kitchen. Items are divided into categories according to their function: hand tools, knives, measuring and portioning devices, cookware, strainers and sieves, processing equipment, storage containers, heavy equipment, buffet equipment and safety equipment. A wide variety of specialized tools and equipment is available to today's chef. Breading machines, croissant shapers and doughnut glazers are designed to speed production by reducing handwork. Other devices for instance, a duck press or a couscousiere are used only for unique tasks in preparing a few menu items. Launch of this specialized equipment is quite expensive and found only in food manufacturing operations or specialized kitchens; a discussion of it is beyond the scope of this chapter. Brief descriptions of some of these specialized devices are, however, found in the Glossary. Baking pans and tools are discussed in Chapter 29, Principles of the Bakeshop. Before using any equipment, study the operator’s manual or have someone experienced with the particular item instruct you on proper procedures for its use and cleaning. And remember, always think safety first.

Selecting tools & Equipment

In general, only commercial food service tools and equipment should be used in a professional kitchen. Household tools and appliances that are not NSF- certified may not withstand the rigors of a professional kitchen. Look for tools that are well constructed. For example, joints should be welded, not bonded with solder, handles should be comfortable, with rounded borders; plastic and rubber parts should be seamless.

Before purchasing or leasing any equipment, you should evaluate several Factors:

1. Is this equipment necessary for producing menu items?

2. Will this equipment perform the job required in the space available?

3. Is this equipment the most economical for the operations specific needs?

4. Is this equipment easy to clean, maintain and repair?

Hand tools

Hand tools are designed to aid in cutting, shaping, moving or combining foods. They have few, if any, moving parts. Knives, discussed separately later, are the most important hand tools. Others are metal or rubber spatulas, spoons, whisks, tongs and specialized cutters. In addition to the items shown here, many hand tools designed for specific tasks, such as pressing tortillas or pitting cherries, are available. Sturdiness, durability and safety are the watchwords when selecting Hand Tools. Choose tools that can withstand the heavy use of a professional Kitchen and those that are easily cleaned.


Knives are the most important items in your tool kit. With a sharp knife, the skilled chef can accomplish a number of tasks more quickly and efficiently than any machine. Good quality knives are expensive but will last for many years with proper care. Select easily sharpened, well constructed knives that are comfortable and balanced in your hand. Knife construction and commonly used knives are discussed here; knife safety and care as well as cutting techniques are discussed in Chapter 6, Knife Skills. A good knife begins with a single piece of metal, stamped, cut or best of all forged and tempered into a blade of the desired shape.

The metals generally used for knife blades are;

1 Carbon steel—An alloy of carbon and iron, carbon steel is traditionally used for blades because it is soft enough to be sharpened easily. It corrodes and discolours easily, however, especially when used with acidic foods.

2 Stainless steel—Stainless steel will not rust, corrode or discolour and is extremely durable. A stainless steel blade is much more difficult to sharpen than a carbon steel one, although once an edge is established; it lasts longer than the edge on a carbon steel blade.

3 High-carbon stainless steel—an alloy combining the best features of carbon steel and stainless steel, high—carbon stainless steel neither corrodes nor discolours and can be sharpened almost as easily as carbon steel. It is now the most frequently used metal for blades.

4 Ceramic—A ceramic called zirconium oxide is now used to make knife blades that are extremely sharp, very easy to clean, rustproof and nonreactive. With proper care, ceramic blades will remain sharp for years, but when sharpening is needed, it must be done professionally on special diamond wheels. Material costs and tariffs make ceramic-bladed knives very expensive. Although this ceramic is highly durable, it does not have the flexibility of metal, so never use a ceramic knife to pry anything, to strike a hard surface (for example, when crushing garlic or chopping through bones) or to cut against a china or ceramic surface. A portion of the blade, known as the tang, fits inside the handle. The best knives are constructed with a full tang running the length of the handle; they also have a bolster where the blade meets the handle (the bolster is part of the blade, not a separate collar). Less expensive knives may have a 3/4th—length tang or a thin “rattail" tang. Neither provides as much support, durability or balance as a full tang.

Knife handles are often made of hard woods infused with plastic and riveted to the tang. Moulded poly- propylene handles are permanently bonded to a tang without seams or rivets. Stainless steel handles welded directly to the blade are durable but very lightweight. Any handle should · be shaped for comfort and ground smooth to eliminate crevices where bacteria can grow.

Knife shapes and sharpening Equipment you will collect many knives during your career, many with specialized functions not described here. This list includes only the most basic knives and sharpening equipment

FRENCH OR CHEF"S KNIFE An all purpose knife used for chopping, slicing and mincing Its rigid 8 to 14 inch long blade is wide at the heel and tapers to a point at the tip.

UTILITY KNIFE and all purpose knife used for cutting fruits and vegetables and carving poultry its rigid 6 to 8 inch-long blades is shaped like a chef’s Knife but narrower.

BONING KNIFE A smaller knife with a thin blade used to separate meat from Bone. The blade is usually 5 to 7 inches long and may be flexible or rigid.

PARING KNIFE a short knife used for detail work or cutting fruits and vegetables the rigid blade is from 2 to 4 inches long. A tour née or bird’s beak knife is similar to a paring knife but with a curved blade It is used to cut curved surfaces or tour née vegetables.

CLEAVER A Knife with a large, heavy rectangular blade used for Chopping or cutting through bones.

SLICER A knife with a long, thin blade used primarily for slicing cooked meat. The tip may be round or pointed, and the blade may be flexible or rigid. A similar knife with a serrated edge is used for slicing bread or pastry items.

BUTCHERS KNIFE sometimes known as a scimitar because the rigid blade curves up in a 25- degree angle at the tip, it is used for fabricating raw meat and is available with 6 to 14-inch blades.

OYSTER AND CLAM KNIVES The short, rigid blades of these knives are used to open oyster and clam shells. The tips are blunt; only the clam knife has a sharp edge

Sharpening Stone

Also known as a whetstone, a flat brick of synthetic abrasives that is used. To put an edge on a dull blade. Various grit Sizes are available. The most practical sets include both coarse and fine-grit stones.


A scored, slightly abrasive steel rod used to hone or straighten a blade immediately after and between sharpening.


Cookware includes the sauté pans and stockpots used on the stove top as well as the roasting pans, hotel pans and specialty molds used inside the oven. Cookware should be selected for its size, shape, ability to conduct heat evenly and overall quality of construction.

Metals and Heat Conduction

Cookware that fails to distribute heat evenly may cause hot spots that burn foods. Because different metals conduct heat at different rates, and thicker layers of metal conduct heat more evenly than thinner ones, the most important considerations when choosing cookware are the type and thickness (known as the gauge) of the material used. No one cookware or material suits every process or need, however; always select the most appropriate material for the task at hand.


Copper is an excellent conductor: It heats rapidly and evenly and cools quickly. Indeed, unlined copper pots are unsurpassed for cooking sugar and fruit mixtures. But copper cookware is extremely expensive. lt also requires a great deal of care and is often quite heavy. Moreover, because copper may react with some foods, copper cookware usually has a tin lining, which is soft and easily scratched. Because of these problems, copper is now often sandwiched between layers of stainless steel or aluminium in the bottom of pots and pans.


Aluminium is the metal used most commonly in commercial utensils. It is light- weight and, after copper, conducts heat best. Aluminium is a soft metal, though. So it should be treated with care to avoid dents. Do not use aluminium containers for storage or for cooking acidic foods because the metal reacts chemically with many foods. Light-colored foods, such as soups or sauces, may be discolored when cooked in aluminium, especially if stirred with a metal whisk or spoon.

Anodized aluminium has a hard, dark, corrosion—resistant surface that helps preventing sticking and discoloration.

Stainless Steel

Although stainless steel conducts and retains heat poorly, it is a hard, durable metal particularly useful for holding foods and for low temperature cooking where as hot spots and scorching is not problems. Stainless steel pots and pans are available with aluminium or copper bonded to the bottom or with an aluminium layered core, Although expensive, such cookware combines the rapid, uniform heat conductivity of copper and aluminium with the strength, durability and non reactivity of stainless steel. Stainless steel is also ideal for storage containers because it does not react with foods.

Cast Iron

Cast iron cookware distributes heat evenly and holds high temperatures well. It is often used in griddles and large skillets. Although relatively inexpensive, cast iron is extremely heavy and brittle. It must be kept properly conditioned and dry to prevent rust and pitting.


Glass retains heat well but conducts it poorly. it does not react with foods. Tempered glass is suitable for microwave cooking provided it does not have any metal band or decoration. Commercial operations rarely use glass cookware because of the danger of breakage.


Ceramics, including earthenware, porcelain and stoneware, are used primarily for baking dishes, casseroles and baking stones because they conduct heat uniformly and retain temperatures well. Ceramics are nonreactive, inexpensive and generally suitable for use in a microwave oven (provided there is no metal in the gaze). Ceramics are easily chipped or cracked, however, and should not be used over a direct flame. Also, quick temperature changes may cause the cook- ware in crack or shatter.


Plastic containers are frequently used in commercial kitchens for food storage or service but they cannot be used for heating or cooking except in a microwave oven. Plastic microwave cookware is made of phenol resin. It is easy to clean, relatively inexpensive and rigidly shaped, but its glasslike structure is brittle, and it can crack or shatter.


Pans Lined with enamel should not be used for cooking; in many areas, their use in commercial kitchens is prohibited by law. The enamel can chip or crack easily providing good places for bacteria to grow. Also, the chemicals used to bond the enamel to the cookware can cause food poisoning if ingested.

Non stick Coatings

Without affecting a metals ability to conduct heat, a polymer (plastic) known as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and marketed under the trade names Teflon and Silverstone may be applied to many types of cookware. It provides a slippery, nonreactive finish that prevents food from sticking and allows the use of less fat in cooking. Cookware with non-stick coatings requires a great deal of care, how- ever since the coatings can scratch, chip and blister. Do not use metal spoons or spatulas in cookware with non-stick coatings.

Common Cookware

Pots are large round vessels with straight sides and loop handles. Available in a range of sizes based on volume, they are used on the stove top making stocks or soups, or for boiling or simmering foods, particular] where rapid evaporation is not desired. Flat lids are available.


Pans are round vessels with one long handle and straight or sloped sides. They are usually smaller and shallower than pots. Pans are available in a range of diameters and are used for general stove top cooking, especially sautéing, frying or reducing liquids rapidly.


Originally used to prepare Asian foods, woks are nova found in many professional kitchens. Their round bottoms and curved sides diffuse heat and make it easy to toss or stir c0ntents. Their large dmed lids retain heat for steaming vegetables Woks are useful for quickly sautéing strips 0f meat, simmering a whole fish or deep frying appetizers. Stove top woks range in diameter fr0m l2 t0 30 inches larger built—in gas 0r electric m0dels are als0 available.

Hotel PANS

Pans (also known as steam table pans) are rectangular stainless steel designed to hold food for service in steam tables. Hotel pans are also used for baking, roasting or poaching inside an oven. Perforated pans use- and for draining, steaming or icing down foods are also available. The Standard pan is 12 by 20 inches, with pans one—half, one-third, one- and other fractions of this size available. Hotel pan depth is not standardized at 2 inches (referred to as a “2OO pan"), 4, 6 and 8 inches.


The moulds are available in several shapes and sizes, and are usually made from tinned steel. Those with hinged sides, whether smooth or patterned, and more properly referred to as an crome molds. The hinged sides make it easier to remove the baked pate. Terrine molds are traditionally lid- earthenware or enameled cast—iron containers used for baking . They may be round, oval or rectangular. Timbale molds are metal or ceramic containers used for molding aspic individual portions of mousse, custard vegetables. Their slightly flared sides allow the contents to release cleanly when removed

Strainer & Sieves

Strainers and sieves are used primarily to aerate and remove impurities from dry ingredients and drain or puree cooked foods. Strainers, colanders, drum sieves, other caps and chinois are nonmechanical devices with a stainless steel mesh or screen through which food passes the size of the mesh or screen varies from extremely fine to several millimetres wide; select the fineness best suited for the task at hand.

Chinois and China cap

Both the chinois and china cap are cone-shaped metal strainers. The conical shape allows liquids to filter through small openings. The body of a chinois is made from a very fine mesh screen, while a china cap has a perforated metal body. Both are used for straining stocks and sauces. With the chinos being particularly useful for consommé. A china cap can also be used with a pestle to puree soft foods.

Skimmer & Spider

Both the skimmer and spider are long—handled tools used to remove foods or impurities from liquids. The flat, perforated disk of a skimmer is used for skimming stocks or removing foods from soups or stocks. The spider has a finer mesh disk, which makes it better for retrieving items from hot fat. Wooden—handled spiders are available but are less sturdy and harder to clean than all—metal designs.


Cheesecloth is loosely woven cotton gauze used for straining stocks and sauces and wrapping poultry or fish for poaching, Cheesecloth is also indispensable for making sachets. Always rinse cheesecloth thoroughly before use; this removes lint and prevents the cheesecloth from absorbing other liquids.

Food mill

A food mill purees and strains food at the same time. Food is placed in the hop- per and a hand—crank mechanism turns a blade in the hopper against a perforated disk, forcing the food through the disk. Most models have interchangeable disks with various—sized holes. Choose a mill that can be taken apart easily for cleaning.

Flour Sifter

A sifter is used for aerating, blending and removing impurities from dry ingredients such as flour, cocoa and leavening agents. The 8-cup hand—crank sifter shown here uses four curved rods to brush the contents through a curved mesh screen. The sifter should have a medium-fine screen and a comfortable handle.

Processing equipment

Processing equipment includes both electrical and nonelectrical mechanical devices used to chop, puree, slice, grind or mix foods. Before using any such equipment, be sure to review its operating procedures and ask for assistance if necessary. Always turn the equipment off and disconnect the power before disassemble cleaning or moving the appliance. Any problems or malfunctions should be reported immediately. Never place your hand into any machine when the power is on. Processing equipment is powerful & can cause serious injury


Electric slicer is used to cut meat, bread, cheese or raw vegetables into uniform slices. It has a circular blade that rotates at high speed. Food is placed in a carrier, and then passed (manually or by an electric motor) against the blade. Slice thickness is determined by the distance between the blade and the carrier. Because of the speed with which the blade rotates, foods can ‘into extremely thin slices very quickly. An electric slicer is convenient for preparing moderate to large quantities of food, but the time required to disassemble and clean the equipment makes it impractical when slicing only a few


A mandolin is a manually operated slicer made of stainless steel with adjustable slicing blades. It is also used to make julienne and waffle- cut slices. Its narrow, rectangular body sits on the world counter at a 45—degree angle. Foods are passed against a blade to obtain uniform slices. It is useful for slicing small quantities of fruits or vegetables when using a large electric slicer would be unwarranted. To avoid injury, always use a hand guard or steel when using a mandolin.


Chopper is used to process moderate to large quantities of uniform size, such as chopping onions or grinding bread for crumbs. The food is placed in a large bowl rotating beneath a hood where curved blades chop it. The size of the cut depends on how long the food is left in the machine. Buffalo choppers are available in floor or tabletop models. The motor can usually be fitted with a variety of other tools such as a meat grinder or a slicer/ shredder, making it even more useful.


A food processor has a motor housing with a removable bowl and S shaped blade. It is used, for example, to puree cooked foods, chop nuts, prepare compound butters and emulsify sauces. Special disks can be added that slice, shred or julienne foods. Bowl capacity and motor power vary; select a processor model large enough for your most common tasks.


Though similar in principle to a food processor, a blender has a tall, narrow food container and a four-pronged blade. Its design and whirlpool action is better for processing liquids or liquid- Frying foods quickly. A blender is used to prepare smooth drinks, puree soups and sauces, blend batters and chop ice. A vertical cutter/mixer (VCM) operates like a very large, powerful blender. A VCM is usually floor—mounted and has a capacity of 15 to 80 quarts.

Immersion blender

An immersion blender as well as its household counterpart called a hand blender or wand-is a long shaft fitted with a rotating four pronged blade at the bottom. Operated by pressing a button in the handle, an immersion blender is used to puree a soft food, soup or sauce directly in the container in which it was prepared, eliminating the need to transfer the food from one container to another. This is especially useful when working with hot foods. Small cord- less, rechargeable models are convenient for pureeing or mixing small quantities or beverages, but larger heavy-duty electric models are more practical in commercial kitchens.


A vertical mixer is indispensable in the bakeshop and most kitchens. The U- shaped arms hold a metal mixing bowl in place; the selected mixing attachment fits onto the rotating head. The three common mixing attachments are the whip (used for whipping eggs or cream), the paddle (used for general mixing) and the dough hook (used for kneading bread). Most mixers have several operating speeds. Bench models range in capacity from 4.5 to 20 quarts, while floor mixers can hold as Whip some mixers can be fitted with shredder slicers, meat grinders, juicers or power strainers, making the equipment more versatile.


Two types of juicers arc available: reamers and extractors. Reamers, also known as citrus juices, remove juice from citrus fruits. Tricky can be manual or electric. Manual use a lever arm to squeeze the fruit with increased pressure. They are most often used to prepare small to

Heavy equipment

Heavy equipment includes the gas electric- or steam-operated appliances used for cooking. Reheating or holding foods. It also includes dishwashers and refrigeration units. These items are usually installed in a fixed location determined by the kitchen’s traffic flow and space limitations. Heavy equipment may be purchased or leased new or used. Used equipments are most often purchased in an effort to save money. Although the initial cost is generally less for used equipment. The buyer should also consider the lack of a manufacturer’s warranty or dealership guarantee and how the equipment was maintained by the prior owner. Functional used equipment is satisfactory for back-of—the—house areas. But it is usually better to purchase new equipment if it will be visible to the customer. Leasing equipment may be appreciated for some operations. The cost of leasing is less than purchasing and if something goes wrong with the equipment, the operator is generally not responsible for repairs or service charges.


Stove tops or ranges are often the most important cooking equipment in the kitchen. They have one or more burners powered by gas or electricity. The burners may be open or covered with a cast-iron or steel plate. Open burners supply quick, direct heat that is easy to regulate. A steel plate, known as a flat top supplies even but less intense heat. Although it takes longer to heat than a burnet the flat top supports heavier weights and makes a larger area available for cooking. Many stoves include both flat tops and open burner arrangements.


Griddles are similar A to flat tops except they are made of a thinner metal plate. Foods are usually cooked directly on the griddle’s surface, not in pots or pans, which can nick or scratch the surface. The surface should be properly cleaned and conditioned after each use. Griddles are popular for short order and fast food type operations.


An oven is an enclosed space where food is cooked by being surrounded with hot, dry air. Conventional ovens are often located beneath the stove top. They have a heating element located at the unit’s bottom or floor, and pans are placed on adjustable wire racks inside the oven’s cavity. See Figure 5.5. Conventional ovens may also be separate, freestanding units or decks stacked one on top of the other in stack ovens, pans are placed directly on the deck or floor and not on wire racks. Convection ovens use internal fans to circulate the hot air; this tends to cook foods more quickly and evenly. Convection ovens are almost always freestanding units, powered either by gas or electricity. Because convection ovens cook foods more quickly, temperatures may need to be reduced by 25°F to 50F (1O°C to 20c) from those recommended for conventional ovens.


The ancient practice of baking in a retained—heat masonry oven has been revived in recent years, with many upscale restaurants and artesian bakeries in- stalling brick or adobe ovens for baking pizzas and breads as well as for roasting fish, poultry and vegetables. These ovens have a curved interior chamber that is usually recessed into a wall. Although grafted models are available, wood—firing is more traditional and provides the aromas and flavours associated with brick ovens. A wood fire is built inside the oven to heat the brick chamber. The ashes are then swept out and the food is placed on the flat oven floor. The combination of high heat and wood smoke adds distinctive flavours to foods.


Microwave ovens are electrically powered ovens used to cook or reheat foods. They are available in a range of sizes and power settings. Microwave ovens will not brown foods unless fitted with special browning elements. Microwave cooking is discussed in more detail in Chapter 10, Principles of Cooking.


Broilers and grills are generally used to prepare meats, fish and poultry. For a grill the heat source is beneath the rack on which the food is placed. For a broiler, the heat source is above the food. Most broilers are gas powered; grills may be gas or electric or may burn wood or charcoal. A salamander is a small over- head broiler primarily used to finish or top- brown foods. See Figure 5.3. A rotisserie is similar to a broiler except that the food is placed on a revolving spit in front of the heat source. The unit may be open or en- closed like an oven; it is most often used for cooking poultry or meats.

Tilting skillets

Tilting skillets are large, freestanding. Flat—bottomed pans about 6 inches deep with an internal heating element below the pans bottom. They are usually made of stainless steel with a cover, and have a handle crank mechanism that turns or tilts the pan to pour out the contents. Tilting skillets can be used as stock pots, braziers, fry pans, griddles or steam tables, making them one of the most versatile of commercial appliances.

Steam kettles

Steam kettles (also known as steam—jacketed kettles) are similar to stockpots except they are heated from the bottom and sides by steam circulating between layers of stainless steel. The steam may be generated internally or from an out- side source. Because steam heats the kettles sides, foods cook more quickly and evenly than they would in a pot sitting on the stove top. Steam kettles are most often used for making sauces, soups, custards or stocks. Steam kettles are available in a range of sizes, from a 2—gallon tabletop model to a 100-gallon floor model. Some models have a tilting mechanism that allows the contents to be poured out; others have a spigot near the bottom through which liquids can be drained.


Pressure and convection steamers are used to cook foods rapidly and evenly, using direct contact with steam. Pressure steamers heat water above the boiling point in sealed compartments; the high temperature and sealed compartment increase the internal pressure in a range of 4 to 15 pounds per square inch. The increased pressure and temperature cook the foods rapidly. Convection steamers generate steam in an internal boiler, and then release it over the foods in a cooking chamber. Both types of steamer are ideal for cooking vegetables with minimal loss of flavour or nutrients.

Deep-fat fryers

Deep-fat fryers are used to cook foods in a large amount of hot fat. Fryers are sized by the amount of fat they hold. Most commercial fryers range between 15 and 82 pounds. Fryers can be either gas or electric and are thermostatically con- trolled for temperatures between 200 F and 400°F (90°C and 200 C). When choosing a fryer, look for a fry tank with curved, easy—to—clean sloping sides. Some fryers have a cold zone (an area of reduced temperature) at the bottom of the fry tank to trap particles. This prevents them from burning, creating off—flavours and shortening the life of the fryer fat. Deep-fryers usually come with steel wire baskets to hold the food during cooking. Fryer baskets are usually lowered into the fat and raised manually, al- though some models have automatic basket mechanisms. The most important factor when choosing a deep-fryer is recovery time. Recovery time is the length of time it takes the fat to return to the desired cooking temperature after food is submerged in it. When food is submerged, heat is immediately transferred to the food from the fat. This heat transfer lowers the fat’s temperature. The more food added at one time, the greater the drop in the fats temperature. If the temperature drops too much or does not return quickly to the proper cooking temperature, the food may absorb excess fat and become greasy.


Proper refrigeration space is an essential component of any kitchen. Many foods must be stored at low temperatures to maintain quality and safety. Most commercial refrigeration is of two types; walk—in units and reach—in or upright units. A walk—in is a large, room-sized box capable of holding hundreds of pounds of food on adjustable shelves, A separate freezer walk—in may be positioned nearby or even inside a refrigerated Walk-in. Reach-ins may be individual units or parts of a bank of units, each with shelves approximately the size of a full sheet pan. Reach—in refrigerators and freezers are usually located throughout the kitchen to provide quick access to foods. Small units may also be placed beneath the work counters. Freezers and refrigerators are available in a wide range of sizes and door designs to suit any operation. Other forms of commercial refrigeration include chilled drawers located beneath a work area that are just large enough to accommodate a hotel pan, and display cases used to show foods to the customer.


Mechanical dishwashers are available to wash rinse and sanitize dishware, glassware, cookware and utensils. Small models clean one rack of items at a time, while larger models can handle several racks simultaneously on a conveyor belt system. Sanitation is accomplished either with extremely hot water 82°C or with chemicals automatically dispensed during the final rinse cycle. Any dishwashing area should be carefully organized for efficient use of equipment and employees, and to prevent recontamination of clean items.

Safety devices

Safety devices, many of which are required by federal, state or local law, are critical to the wellbeing of a food service operation although they are not used in food preparation. Failing to include safety equipment in a kitchen or failing to maintain it properly endangers workers and customers.

Fire extinguishers

Fire extinguishers are canisters of foam, dry chemicals (such as sodium bi carbonate or potassium bicarbonate or pressurized water used to extinguish small fires. They must be placed within sight of and easily reached from the work areas in which fires are likely to occur. Different classes of extinguishers use different chemicals to fight different types of fires. The appropriate class must be used for the specific fire. See Table 5.2. Fire extinguishers must be recharged and checked from time to time. Be sure they have not been discharged, tampered with or otherwise damaged.

Ventilation systems

Ventilation systems (also called ventilation hoods) are commonly installed over cooking equipment to remove vapours, heat and smoke. Some systems include fire extinguishing agents or sprinklers. A properly operating hood makes the kitchen more comfortable for the staff and reduces the danger of fire. The system should be designed, installed and inspected by professionals, then cleaned and maintained regularly.

First—aid Kits

First—aid supplies should be stored in a clearly marked box, conspicuously located near food preparation areas. State and local laws may specify the kit’s ex- act contents. Generally, they should include a first-aid manual, bandages, gauze dressings, adhesive tape, antiseptics, scissors, cold packs and other supplies. The kit should be checked regularly and items replaced as needed. In addition, cards with emergency telephone numbers should be placed inside the fist—aid kit and near a telephone.


No comments:

Post a Comment